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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: bogled
cipher variations:
cphmfe dqingf erjohg fskpih gtlqji
humrkj ivnslk jwotml kxpunm lyqvon
mzrwpo nasxqp obtyrq pcuzsr qdvats
rewbut sfxcvu tgydwv uhzexw viafyx
wjbgzy xkchaz yldiba zmejcb anfkdc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: bogled
Cipher: yltovw

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: bogled

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: bogled
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: bogled
Cipher: obtyrq

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: bogled
Cipher: 214322135141

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: bogled
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b o g l e d 
2 4 2 1 5 4 
1 3 2 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: bogled
Cipher: rbulma

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Method #3

Plaintext: bogled
method variations:
qhbxqf hbxqfq bxqfqh
xqfqhb qfqhbx fqhbxq

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: bogled

all 720 cipher variations:
bogled boglde bogeld bogedl bogdel bogdle bolged bolgde bolegd boledg boldeg
boldge boelgd boeldg boegld boegdl boedgl boedlg bodleg bodlge bodelg bodegl
bodgel bodgle bgoled bgolde bgoeld bgoedl bgodel bgodle bgloed bglode bgleod
bgledo bgldeo bgldoe bgelod bgeldo bgeold bgeodl bgedol bgedlo bgdleo bgdloe
bgdelo bgdeol bgdoel bgdole blgoed blgode blgeod blgedo blgdeo blgdoe bloged
blogde bloegd bloedg blodeg blodge bleogd bleodg blegod blegdo bledgo bledog
bldoeg bldoge bldeog bldego bldgeo bldgoe beglod begldo begold begodl begdol
begdlo belgod belgdo belogd belodg beldog beldgo beolgd beoldg beogld beogdl
beodgl beodlg bedlog bedlgo bedolg bedogl bedgol bedglo bdgleo bdgloe bdgelo
bdgeol bdgoel bdgole bdlgeo bdlgoe bdlego bdleog bdloeg bdloge bdelgo bdelog
bdeglo bdegol bdeogl bdeolg bdoleg bdolge bdoelg bdoegl bdogel bdogle obgled
obglde obgeld obgedl obgdel obgdle oblged oblgde oblegd obledg obldeg obldge
obelgd obeldg obegld obegdl obedgl obedlg obdleg obdlge obdelg obdegl obdgel
obdgle ogbled ogblde ogbeld ogbedl ogbdel ogbdle oglbed oglbde oglebd ogledb
ogldeb ogldbe ogelbd ogeldb ogebld ogebdl ogedbl ogedlb ogdleb ogdlbe ogdelb
ogdebl ogdbel ogdble olgbed olgbde olgebd olgedb olgdeb olgdbe olbged olbgde
olbegd olbedg olbdeg olbdge olebgd olebdg olegbd olegdb oledgb oledbg oldbeg
oldbge oldebg oldegb oldgeb oldgbe oeglbd oegldb oegbld oegbdl oegdbl oegdlb
oelgbd oelgdb oelbgd oelbdg oeldbg oeldgb oeblgd oebldg oebgld oebgdl oebdgl
oebdlg oedlbg oedlgb oedblg oedbgl oedgbl oedglb odgleb odglbe odgelb odgebl
odgbel odgble odlgeb odlgbe odlegb odlebg odlbeg odlbge odelgb odelbg odeglb
odegbl odebgl odeblg odbleg odblge odbelg odbegl odbgel odbgle gobled goblde
gobeld gobedl gobdel gobdle golbed golbde golebd goledb goldeb goldbe goelbd
goeldb goebld goebdl goedbl goedlb godleb godlbe godelb godebl godbel godble
gboled gbolde gboeld gboedl gbodel gbodle gbloed gblode gbleod gbledo gbldeo
gbldoe gbelod gbeldo gbeold gbeodl gbedol gbedlo gbdleo gbdloe gbdelo gbdeol
gbdoel gbdole glboed glbode glbeod glbedo glbdeo glbdoe globed globde gloebd
gloedb glodeb glodbe gleobd gleodb glebod glebdo gledbo gledob gldoeb gldobe
gldeob gldebo gldbeo gldboe geblod gebldo gebold gebodl gebdol gebdlo gelbod
gelbdo gelobd gelodb geldob geldbo geolbd geoldb geobld geobdl geodbl geodlb
gedlob gedlbo gedolb gedobl gedbol gedblo gdbleo gdbloe gdbelo gdbeol gdboel
gdbole gdlbeo gdlboe gdlebo gdleob gdloeb gdlobe gdelbo gdelob gdeblo gdebol
gdeobl gdeolb gdoleb gdolbe gdoelb gdoebl gdobel gdoble logbed logbde logebd
logedb logdeb logdbe lobged lobgde lobegd lobedg lobdeg lobdge loebgd loebdg
loegbd loegdb loedgb loedbg lodbeg lodbge lodebg lodegb lodgeb lodgbe lgobed
lgobde lgoebd lgoedb lgodeb lgodbe lgboed lgbode lgbeod lgbedo lgbdeo lgbdoe
lgebod lgebdo lgeobd lgeodb lgedob lgedbo lgdbeo lgdboe lgdebo lgdeob lgdoeb
lgdobe lbgoed lbgode lbgeod lbgedo lbgdeo lbgdoe lboged lbogde lboegd lboedg
lbodeg lbodge lbeogd lbeodg lbegod lbegdo lbedgo lbedog lbdoeg lbdoge lbdeog
lbdego lbdgeo lbdgoe legbod legbdo legobd legodb legdob legdbo lebgod lebgdo
lebogd lebodg lebdog lebdgo leobgd leobdg leogbd leogdb leodgb leodbg ledbog
ledbgo ledobg ledogb ledgob ledgbo ldgbeo ldgboe ldgebo ldgeob ldgoeb ldgobe
ldbgeo ldbgoe ldbego ldbeog ldboeg ldboge ldebgo ldebog ldegbo ldegob ldeogb
ldeobg ldobeg ldobge ldoebg ldoegb ldogeb ldogbe eoglbd eogldb eogbld eogbdl
eogdbl eogdlb eolgbd eolgdb eolbgd eolbdg eoldbg eoldgb eoblgd eobldg eobgld
eobgdl eobdgl eobdlg eodlbg eodlgb eodblg eodbgl eodgbl eodglb egolbd egoldb
egobld egobdl egodbl egodlb eglobd eglodb eglbod eglbdo egldbo egldob egblod
egbldo egbold egbodl egbdol egbdlo egdlbo egdlob egdblo egdbol egdobl egdolb
elgobd elgodb elgbod elgbdo elgdbo elgdob elogbd elogdb elobgd elobdg elodbg
elodgb elbogd elbodg elbgod elbgdo elbdgo elbdog eldobg eldogb eldbog eldbgo
eldgbo eldgob ebglod ebgldo ebgold ebgodl ebgdol ebgdlo eblgod eblgdo eblogd
eblodg ebldog ebldgo ebolgd eboldg ebogld ebogdl ebodgl ebodlg ebdlog ebdlgo
ebdolg ebdogl ebdgol ebdglo edglbo edglob edgblo edgbol edgobl edgolb edlgbo
edlgob edlbgo edlbog edlobg edlogb edblgo edblog edbglo edbgol edbogl edbolg
edolbg edolgb edoblg edobgl edogbl edoglb dogleb doglbe dogelb dogebl dogbel
dogble dolgeb dolgbe dolegb dolebg dolbeg dolbge doelgb doelbg doeglb doegbl
doebgl doeblg dobleg doblge dobelg dobegl dobgel dobgle dgoleb dgolbe dgoelb
dgoebl dgobel dgoble dgloeb dglobe dgleob dglebo dglbeo dglboe dgelob dgelbo
dgeolb dgeobl dgebol dgeblo dgbleo dgbloe dgbelo dgbeol dgboel dgbole dlgoeb
dlgobe dlgeob dlgebo dlgbeo dlgboe dlogeb dlogbe dloegb dloebg dlobeg dlobge
dleogb dleobg dlegob dlegbo dlebgo dlebog dlboeg dlboge dlbeog dlbego dlbgeo
dlbgoe deglob deglbo degolb degobl degbol degblo delgob delgbo delogb delobg
delbog delbgo deolgb deolbg deoglb deogbl deobgl deoblg deblog deblgo debolg
debogl debgol debglo dbgleo dbgloe dbgelo dbgeol dbgoel dbgole dblgeo dblgoe
dblego dbleog dbloeg dbloge dbelgo dbelog dbeglo dbegol dbeogl dbeolg dboleg
dbolge dboelg dboegl dbogel dbogle

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History of cryptography
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