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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: bloggs
cipher variations:
cmphht dnqiiu eorjjv fpskkw gqtllx
hrummy isvnnz jtwooa kuxppb lvyqqc
mwzrrd nxasse oybttf pzcuug qadvvh
rbewwi scfxxj tdgyyk uehzzl vfiaam
wgjbbn xhkcco yilddp zjmeeq aknffr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: bloggs
Cipher: yoltth

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: bloggs
Cipher: AAAAB ABABA ABBAB AABBA AABBA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: bloggs
cipher variations:
cmphhteirttdgetffniavrrxkwxddhmszpprqkdnnlsgfzzv
uchllfwyjxxpyuljjzaqnvvjdnqiiufjsuuehfuggojbwssy
lxyeeintaqqsrleoomthgaawvdimmgxzkyyqzvmkkabrowwk
eorjjvgktvvfigvhhpkcxttzmyzffjoubrrtsmfppnuihbbx
wejnnhyalzzrawnllbcspxxlfpskkwhluwwgjhwiiqldyuua
nzaggkpvcssutngqqovjiccyxfkooizbmaasbxommcdtqyym
gqtllximvxxhkixjjrmezvvboabhhlqwdttvuohrrpwkjddz
yglppjacnbbtcypnndeurzznhrummyjnwyyiljykksnfawwc
pbciimrxeuuwvpissqxlkeeazhmqqkbdoccudzqooefvsaao
isvnnzkoxzzjmkzlltogbxxdqcdjjnsyfvvxwqjttrymlffb
ainrrlcepddvearppfgwtbbpjtwooalpyaaknlammuphcyye
rdekkotzgwwyxrkuusznmggcbjossmdfqeewfbsqqghxuccq
kuxppbmqzbblombnnvqidzzfsefllpuahxxzyslvvtaonhhd
ckpttnegrffxgctrrhiyvddrlvyqqcnraccmpncoowrjeaag
tfgmmqvbiyyaztmwwubpoiiedlquuofhsggyhdussijzwees
mwzrrdosbddnqodppxskfbbhughnnrwcjzzbaunxxvcqpjjf
emrvvpgithhzievttjkaxfftnxasseptceeorpeqqytlgcci
vhioosxdkaacbvoyywdrqkkgfnswwqhjuiiajfwuuklbyggu
oybttfqudffpsqfrrzumhddjwijpptyelbbdcwpzzxesrllh
gotxxrikvjjbkgxvvlmczhhvpzcuugrveggqtrgssavnieek
xjkqquzfmccedxqaayftsmmihpuyysjlwkkclhywwmndaiiw
qadvvhswfhhrushttbwojfflyklrrvagnddfeyrbbzgutnnj
iqvzztkmxlldmizxxnoebjjxrbewwitxgiisvtiuucxpkggm
zlmsswbhoeegfzsccahvuookjrwaaulnymmenjayyopfckky
scfxxjuyhjjtwujvvdyqlhhnamnttxcipffhgatddbiwvppl
ksxbbvmoznnfokbzzpqgdllztdgyykvzikkuxvkwwezrmiio
bnouuydjqggihbueecjxwqqmltyccwnpaoogplcaaqrhemma
uehzzlwajllvywlxxfasnjjpcopvvzekrhhjicvffdkyxrrn
muzddxoqbpphqmdbbrsifnnbvfiaamxbkmmwzxmyygbtokkq
dpqwwaflsiikjdwggelzyssonvaeeyprcqqirneccstjgooc
wgjbbnyclnnxaynzzhcupllreqrxxbgmtjjlkexhhfmazttp
owbffzqsdrrjsofddtukhppdxhkccozdmooybzoaaidvqmms
frsyychnukkmlfyiignbauuqpxcggartessktpgeeuvliqqe
yilddpaenppzcapbbjewrnntgstzzdiovllnmgzjjhocbvvr
qydhhbsufttluqhffvwmjrrfzjmeeqbfoqqadbqcckfxsoou
htuaaejpwmmonhakkipdcwwsrzeiictvguumvriggwxnkssg
aknffrcgprrbecrddlgytppviuvbbfkqxnnpoiblljqedxxt
safjjduwhvvnwsjhhxyoltthbloggsdhqsscfdseemhzuqqw
jvwccglryooqpjcmmkrfeyyutbgkkevxiwwoxtkiiyzpmuui

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: bloggs
Cipher: oybttf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: bloggs
Cipher: 211343222234

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: bloggs
method variations:
gqtmmxmvyrrcradwwhwfibbn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b l o g g s 
2 1 4 2 2 3 
1 3 3 2 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
214223133224
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: bloggs
Cipher: bimlhr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: bloggs
method variations:
ashgmi shgmia hgmias
gmiash miashg iashgm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: bloggs

all 720 cipher variations:
bloggs blogsg bloggs blogsg blosgg blosgg blgogs blgosg blggos blggso blgsgo
blgsog blggos blggso blgogs blgosg blgsog blgsgo blsggo blsgog blsggo blsgog
blsogg blsogg bolggs bolgsg bolggs bolgsg bolsgg bolsgg boglgs boglsg boggls
boggsl bogsgl bogslg boggls boggsl boglgs boglsg bogslg bogsgl bosggl bosglg
bosggl bosglg boslgg boslgg bgolgs bgolsg bgogls bgogsl bgosgl bgoslg bglogs
bglosg bglgos bglgso bglsgo bglsog bgglos bgglso bggols bggosl bggsol bggslo
bgslgo bgslog bgsglo bgsgol bgsogl bgsolg bgogls bgogsl bgolgs bgolsg bgoslg
bgosgl bggols bggosl bgglos bgglso bggslo bggsol bglgos bglgso bglogs bglosg
bglsog bglsgo bgsglo bgsgol bgslgo bgslog bgsolg bgsogl bsoggl bsoglg bsoggl
bsoglg bsolgg bsolgg bsgogl bsgolg bsggol bsgglo bsglgo bsglog bsggol bsgglo
bsgogl bsgolg bsglog bsglgo bslggo bslgog bslggo bslgog bslogg bslogg lboggs
lbogsg lboggs lbogsg lbosgg lbosgg lbgogs lbgosg lbggos lbggso lbgsgo lbgsog
lbggos lbggso lbgogs lbgosg lbgsog lbgsgo lbsggo lbsgog lbsggo lbsgog lbsogg
lbsogg lobggs lobgsg lobggs lobgsg lobsgg lobsgg logbgs logbsg loggbs loggsb
logsgb logsbg loggbs loggsb logbgs logbsg logsbg logsgb losggb losgbg losggb
losgbg losbgg losbgg lgobgs lgobsg lgogbs lgogsb lgosgb lgosbg lgbogs lgbosg
lgbgos lgbgso lgbsgo lgbsog lggbos lggbso lggobs lggosb lggsob lggsbo lgsbgo
lgsbog lgsgbo lgsgob lgsogb lgsobg lgogbs lgogsb lgobgs lgobsg lgosbg lgosgb
lggobs lggosb lggbos lggbso lggsbo lggsob lgbgos lgbgso lgbogs lgbosg lgbsog
lgbsgo lgsgbo lgsgob lgsbgo lgsbog lgsobg lgsogb lsoggb lsogbg lsoggb lsogbg
lsobgg lsobgg lsgogb lsgobg lsggob lsggbo lsgbgo lsgbog lsggob lsggbo lsgogb
lsgobg lsgbog lsgbgo lsbggo lsbgog lsbggo lsbgog lsbogg lsbogg olbggs olbgsg
olbggs olbgsg olbsgg olbsgg olgbgs olgbsg olggbs olggsb olgsgb olgsbg olggbs
olggsb olgbgs olgbsg olgsbg olgsgb olsggb olsgbg olsggb olsgbg olsbgg olsbgg
oblggs oblgsg oblggs oblgsg oblsgg oblsgg obglgs obglsg obggls obggsl obgsgl
obgslg obggls obggsl obglgs obglsg obgslg obgsgl obsggl obsglg obsggl obsglg
obslgg obslgg ogblgs ogblsg ogbgls ogbgsl ogbsgl ogbslg oglbgs oglbsg oglgbs
oglgsb oglsgb oglsbg ogglbs ogglsb oggbls oggbsl oggsbl oggslb ogslgb ogslbg
ogsglb ogsgbl ogsbgl ogsblg ogbgls ogbgsl ogblgs ogblsg ogbslg ogbsgl oggbls
oggbsl ogglbs ogglsb oggslb oggsbl oglgbs oglgsb oglbgs oglbsg oglsbg oglsgb
ogsglb ogsgbl ogslgb ogslbg ogsblg ogsbgl osbggl osbglg osbggl osbglg osblgg
osblgg osgbgl osgblg osggbl osgglb osglgb osglbg osggbl osgglb osgbgl osgblg
osglbg osglgb oslggb oslgbg oslggb oslgbg oslbgg oslbgg globgs globsg glogbs
glogsb glosgb glosbg glbogs glbosg glbgos glbgso glbsgo glbsog glgbos glgbso
glgobs glgosb glgsob glgsbo glsbgo glsbog glsgbo glsgob glsogb glsobg golbgs
golbsg golgbs golgsb golsgb golsbg goblgs goblsg gobgls gobgsl gobsgl gobslg
gogbls gogbsl goglbs goglsb gogslb gogsbl gosbgl gosblg gosgbl gosglb goslgb
goslbg gbolgs gbolsg gbogls gbogsl gbosgl gboslg gblogs gblosg gblgos gblgso
gblsgo gblsog gbglos gbglso gbgols gbgosl gbgsol gbgslo gbslgo gbslog gbsglo
gbsgol gbsogl gbsolg ggobls ggobsl ggolbs ggolsb ggoslb ggosbl ggbols ggbosl
ggblos ggblso ggbslo ggbsol gglbos gglbso gglobs gglosb gglsob gglsbo ggsblo
ggsbol ggslbo ggslob ggsolb ggsobl gsobgl gsoblg gsogbl gsoglb gsolgb gsolbg
gsbogl gsbolg gsbgol gsbglo gsblgo gsblog gsgbol gsgblo gsgobl gsgolb gsglob
gsglbo gslbgo gslbog gslgbo gslgob gslogb gslobg glogbs glogsb globgs globsg
glosbg glosgb glgobs glgosb glgbos glgbso glgsbo glgsob glbgos glbgso glbogs
glbosg glbsog glbsgo glsgbo glsgob glsbgo glsbog glsobg glsogb golgbs golgsb
golbgs golbsg golsbg golsgb goglbs goglsb gogbls gogbsl gogsbl gogslb gobgls
gobgsl goblgs goblsg gobslg gobsgl gosgbl gosglb gosbgl gosblg goslbg goslgb
ggolbs ggolsb ggobls ggobsl ggosbl ggoslb gglobs gglosb gglbos gglbso gglsbo
gglsob ggblos ggblso ggbols ggbosl ggbsol ggbslo ggslbo ggslob ggsblo ggsbol
ggsobl ggsolb gbogls gbogsl gbolgs gbolsg gboslg gbosgl gbgols gbgosl gbglos
gbglso gbgslo gbgsol gblgos gblgso gblogs gblosg gblsog gblsgo gbsglo gbsgol
gbslgo gbslog gbsolg gbsogl gsogbl gsoglb gsobgl gsoblg gsolbg gsolgb gsgobl
gsgolb gsgbol gsgblo gsglbo gsglob gsbgol gsbglo gsbogl gsbolg gsblog gsblgo
gslgbo gslgob gslbgo gslbog gslobg gslogb sloggb slogbg sloggb slogbg slobgg
slobgg slgogb slgobg slggob slggbo slgbgo slgbog slggob slggbo slgogb slgobg
slgbog slgbgo slbggo slbgog slbggo slbgog slbogg slbogg solggb solgbg solggb
solgbg solbgg solbgg soglgb soglbg sogglb soggbl sogbgl sogblg sogglb soggbl
soglgb soglbg sogblg sogbgl sobggl sobglg sobggl sobglg soblgg soblgg sgolgb
sgolbg sgoglb sgogbl sgobgl sgoblg sglogb sglobg sglgob sglgbo sglbgo sglbog
sgglob sgglbo sggolb sggobl sggbol sggblo sgblgo sgblog sgbglo sgbgol sgbogl
sgbolg sgoglb sgogbl sgolgb sgolbg sgoblg sgobgl sggolb sggobl sgglob sgglbo
sggblo sggbol sglgob sglgbo sglogb sglobg sglbog sglbgo sgbglo sgbgol sgblgo
sgblog sgbolg sgbogl sboggl sboglg sboggl sboglg sbolgg sbolgg sbgogl sbgolg
sbggol sbgglo sbglgo sbglog sbggol sbgglo sbgogl sbgolg sbglog sbglgo sblggo
sblgog sblggo sblgog sblogg sblogg

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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