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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: bendys
cipher variations:
cfoezt dgpfau ehqgbv firhcw gjsidx
hktjey ilukfz jmvlga knwmhb loxnic
mpyojd nqzpke oraqlf psbrmg qtcsnh
rudtoi sveupj twfvqk uxgwrl vyhxsm
wziytn xajzuo ybkavp zclbwq admcxr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: bendys
Cipher: yvmwbh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: bendys

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: bendys
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: bendys
Cipher: oraqlf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: bendys
Cipher: 215133414534

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: bendys
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b e n d y s 
2 5 3 4 4 3 
1 1 3 1 5 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: bendys
Cipher: wsoacu

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Method #3

Plaintext: bendys
method variations:
vlsqpi lsqpiv sqpivl
qpivls pivlsq ivlsqp

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: bendys

all 720 cipher variations:
bendys bendsy benyds benysd bensyd bensdy bednys bednsy bedyns bedysn bedsyn
bedsny beydns beydsn beynds beynsd beysnd beysdn besdyn besdny besydn besynd
besnyd besndy bnedys bnedsy bneyds bneysd bnesyd bnesdy bndeys bndesy bndyes
bndyse bndsye bndsey bnydes bnydse bnyeds bnyesd bnysed bnysde bnsdye bnsdey
bnsyde bnsyed bnseyd bnsedy bdneys bdnesy bdnyes bdnyse bdnsye bdnsey bdenys
bdensy bdeyns bdeysn bdesyn bdesny bdyens bdyesn bdynes bdynse bdysne bdysen
bdseyn bdseny bdsyen bdsyne bdsnye bdsney byndes byndse byneds bynesd bynsed
bynsde bydnes bydnse bydens bydesn bydsen bydsne byedns byedsn byends byensd
byesnd byesdn bysden bysdne bysedn bysend bysned bysnde bsndye bsndey bsnyde
bsnyed bsneyd bsnedy bsdnye bsdney bsdyne bsdyen bsdeyn bsdeny bsydne bsyden
bsynde bsyned bsyend bsyedn bsedyn bsedny bseydn bseynd bsenyd bsendy ebndys
ebndsy ebnyds ebnysd ebnsyd ebnsdy ebdnys ebdnsy ebdyns ebdysn ebdsyn ebdsny
ebydns ebydsn ebynds ebynsd ebysnd ebysdn ebsdyn ebsdny ebsydn ebsynd ebsnyd
ebsndy enbdys enbdsy enbyds enbysd enbsyd enbsdy endbys endbsy endybs endysb
endsyb endsby enydbs enydsb enybds enybsd enysbd enysdb ensdyb ensdby ensydb
ensybd ensbyd ensbdy ednbys ednbsy ednybs ednysb ednsyb ednsby edbnys edbnsy
edbyns edbysn edbsyn edbsny edybns edybsn edynbs edynsb edysnb edysbn edsbyn
edsbny edsybn edsynb edsnyb edsnby eyndbs eyndsb eynbds eynbsd eynsbd eynsdb
eydnbs eydnsb eydbns eydbsn eydsbn eydsnb eybdns eybdsn eybnds eybnsd eybsnd
eybsdn eysdbn eysdnb eysbdn eysbnd eysnbd eysndb esndyb esndby esnydb esnybd
esnbyd esnbdy esdnyb esdnby esdynb esdybn esdbyn esdbny esydnb esydbn esyndb
esynbd esybnd esybdn esbdyn esbdny esbydn esbynd esbnyd esbndy nebdys nebdsy
nebyds nebysd nebsyd nebsdy nedbys nedbsy nedybs nedysb nedsyb nedsby neydbs
neydsb neybds neybsd neysbd neysdb nesdyb nesdby nesydb nesybd nesbyd nesbdy
nbedys nbedsy nbeyds nbeysd nbesyd nbesdy nbdeys nbdesy nbdyes nbdyse nbdsye
nbdsey nbydes nbydse nbyeds nbyesd nbysed nbysde nbsdye nbsdey nbsyde nbsyed
nbseyd nbsedy ndbeys ndbesy ndbyes ndbyse ndbsye ndbsey ndebys ndebsy ndeybs
ndeysb ndesyb ndesby ndyebs ndyesb ndybes ndybse ndysbe ndyseb ndseyb ndseby
ndsyeb ndsybe ndsbye ndsbey nybdes nybdse nybeds nybesd nybsed nybsde nydbes
nydbse nydebs nydesb nydseb nydsbe nyedbs nyedsb nyebds nyebsd nyesbd nyesdb
nysdeb nysdbe nysedb nysebd nysbed nysbde nsbdye nsbdey nsbyde nsbyed nsbeyd
nsbedy nsdbye nsdbey nsdybe nsdyeb nsdeyb nsdeby nsydbe nsydeb nsybde nsybed
nsyebd nsyedb nsedyb nsedby nseydb nseybd nsebyd nsebdy denbys denbsy denybs
denysb densyb densby debnys debnsy debyns debysn debsyn debsny deybns deybsn
deynbs deynsb deysnb deysbn desbyn desbny desybn desynb desnyb desnby dnebys
dnebsy dneybs dneysb dnesyb dnesby dnbeys dnbesy dnbyes dnbyse dnbsye dnbsey
dnybes dnybse dnyebs dnyesb dnyseb dnysbe dnsbye dnsbey dnsybe dnsyeb dnseyb
dnseby dbneys dbnesy dbnyes dbnyse dbnsye dbnsey dbenys dbensy dbeyns dbeysn
dbesyn dbesny dbyens dbyesn dbynes dbynse dbysne dbysen dbseyn dbseny dbsyen
dbsyne dbsnye dbsney dynbes dynbse dynebs dynesb dynseb dynsbe dybnes dybnse
dybens dybesn dybsen dybsne dyebns dyebsn dyenbs dyensb dyesnb dyesbn dysben
dysbne dysebn dysenb dysneb dysnbe dsnbye dsnbey dsnybe dsnyeb dsneyb dsneby
dsbnye dsbney dsbyne dsbyen dsbeyn dsbeny dsybne dsyben dsynbe dsyneb dsyenb
dsyebn dsebyn dsebny dseybn dseynb dsenyb dsenby yendbs yendsb yenbds yenbsd
yensbd yensdb yednbs yednsb yedbns yedbsn yedsbn yedsnb yebdns yebdsn yebnds
yebnsd yebsnd yebsdn yesdbn yesdnb yesbdn yesbnd yesnbd yesndb ynedbs ynedsb
ynebds ynebsd ynesbd ynesdb yndebs yndesb yndbes yndbse yndsbe yndseb ynbdes
ynbdse ynbeds ynbesd ynbsed ynbsde ynsdbe ynsdeb ynsbde ynsbed ynsebd ynsedb
ydnebs ydnesb ydnbes ydnbse ydnsbe ydnseb ydenbs ydensb ydebns ydebsn ydesbn
ydesnb ydbens ydbesn ydbnes ydbnse ydbsne ydbsen ydsebn ydsenb ydsben ydsbne
ydsnbe ydsneb ybndes ybndse ybneds ybnesd ybnsed ybnsde ybdnes ybdnse ybdens
ybdesn ybdsen ybdsne ybedns ybedsn ybends ybensd ybesnd ybesdn ybsden ybsdne
ybsedn ybsend ybsned ybsnde ysndbe ysndeb ysnbde ysnbed ysnebd ysnedb ysdnbe
ysdneb ysdbne ysdben ysdebn ysdenb ysbdne ysbden ysbnde ysbned ysbend ysbedn
ysedbn ysednb ysebdn ysebnd ysenbd ysendb sendyb sendby senydb senybd senbyd
senbdy sednyb sednby sedynb sedybn sedbyn sedbny seydnb seydbn seyndb seynbd
seybnd seybdn sebdyn sebdny sebydn sebynd sebnyd sebndy snedyb snedby sneydb
sneybd snebyd snebdy sndeyb sndeby sndyeb sndybe sndbye sndbey snydeb snydbe
snyedb snyebd snybed snybde snbdye snbdey snbyde snbyed snbeyd snbedy sdneyb
sdneby sdnyeb sdnybe sdnbye sdnbey sdenyb sdenby sdeynb sdeybn sdebyn sdebny
sdyenb sdyebn sdyneb sdynbe sdybne sdyben sdbeyn sdbeny sdbyen sdbyne sdbnye
sdbney syndeb syndbe synedb synebd synbed synbde sydneb sydnbe sydenb sydebn
sydben sydbne syednb syedbn syendb syenbd syebnd syebdn sybden sybdne sybedn
sybend sybned sybnde sbndye sbndey sbnyde sbnyed sbneyd sbnedy sbdnye sbdney
sbdyne sbdyen sbdeyn sbdeny sbydne sbyden sbynde sbyned sbyend sbyedn sbedyn
sbedny sbeydn sbeynd sbenyd sbendy

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History of cryptography
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