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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: beeker
cipher variations:
cfflfs dggmgt ehhnhu fiioiv gjjpjw
hkkqkx illrly jmmsmz knntna loouob
mppvpc nqqwqd orrxre pssysf qttztg
ruuauh svvbvi twwcwj uxxdxk vyyeyl
wzzfzm xaagan ybbhbo zccicp addjdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: beeker
Cipher: yvvpvi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: beeker
Cipher: AAAAB AABAA AABAA ABAAB AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: beeker
cipher variations:
cfflfsennfnagvvzviiddtdqkllnlymtthtgqjjvjwsrrpre
uzzjzmwhhdhuyppxpcaxxrxkdggmgtfoogobhwwawjjeeuer
lmmomznuuiuhrkkwkxtssqsfvaakanxiieivzqqyqdbyysyl
ehhnhugpphpcixxbxkkffvfsmnnpnaovvjvisllxlyuttrtg
wbblboyjjfjwarrzreczztzmfiioivhqqiqdjyycyllggwgt
nooqobpwwkwjtmmymzvuusuhxccmcpzkkgkxbssasfdaauan
gjjpjwirrjrekzzdzmmhhxhuopprpcqxxlxkunnznawvvtvi
yddndqallhlycttbtgebbvbohkkqkxjssksflaaeanniiyiv
pqqsqdryymylvooaobxwwuwjzeeoerbmmimzduucuhfccwcp
illrlykttltgmbbfboojjzjwqrrtreszznzmwppbpcyxxvxk
affpfscnnjnaevvdvigddxdqjmmsmzluumuhnccgcppkkakx
rssusftaaoanxqqcqdzyywylbggqgtdookobfwwewjheeyer
knntnamvvnvioddhdqqllblysttvtgubbpboyrrdreazzxzm
chhrhuepplpcgxxfxkiffzfsloouobnwwowjpeeierrmmcmz
tuuwuhvccqcpzssesfbaayandiisivfqqmqdhyygyljggagt
mppvpcoxxpxkqffjfssnndnauvvxviwddrdqattftgcbbzbo
ejjtjwgrrnreizzhzmkhhbhunqqwqdpyyqylrggkgttooeob
vwwywjxeeserbuuguhdccacpfkkukxhssosfjaaianliiciv
orrxreqzzrzmshhlhuuppfpcwxxzxkyfftfscvvhvieddbdq
gllvlyittptgkbbjbomjjdjwpssysfraasantiimivvqqgqd
xyyaylzggugtdwwiwjfeecerhmmwmzjuuquhlcckcpnkkekx
qttztgsbbtboujjnjwwrrhreyzzbzmahhvhuexxjxkgffdfs
innxnakvvrvimddldqollflyruuauhtccucpvkkokxxssisf
zaacanbiiwivfyykylhggegtjooyoblwwswjneemerpmmgmz
svvbviuddvdqwllplyyttjtgabbdbocjjxjwgzzlzmihhfhu
kppzpcmxxtxkoffnfsqnnhnatwwcwjveewerxmmqmzzuukuh
bccecpdkkykxhaamanjiigivlqqaqdnyyuylpggogtrooiob
uxxdxkwffxfsynnrnaavvlvicddfdqellzlyibbnbokjjhjw
mrrbreozzvzmqhhphusppjpcvyyeylxggygtzoosobbwwmwj
deegerfmmamzjccocplkkikxnsscsfpaawanriiqivtqqkqd
wzzfzmyhhzhuapptpccxxnxkeffhfsgnnbnakddpdqmlljly
ottdtgqbbxbosjjrjwurrlrexaaganziiaivbqquqddyyoyl
fggigthoocobleeqernmmkmzpuueuhrccycptkkskxvssmsf
ybbhboajjbjwcrrvreezzpzmghhjhuippdpcmffrfsonnlna
qvvfvisddzdqulltlywttntgzccicpbkkckxdsswsffaaqan
hiikivjqqeqdnggsgtpoomobrwwgwjteeaervmmumzxuuouh
addjdqclldlyettxtggbbrboijjljwkrrfreohhthuqppnpc
sxxhxkuffbfswnnvnayvvpvibeekerdmmemzfuuyuhhccscp
jkkmkxlssgsfpiiuivrqqoqdtyyiylvggcgtxoowobzwwqwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: beeker
Cipher: orrxre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: beeker
Cipher: 215151525124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: beeker
method variations:
gkkpkwmppupbruuzugwzzezm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b e e k e r 
2 5 5 5 5 2 
1 1 1 2 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
255552111214
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: beeker
Cipher: wzkafq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: beeker
method variations:
vvvwfi vvwfiv vwfivv
wfivvv fivvvw ivvvwf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: beeker

all 720 cipher variations:
beeker beekre beeekr beeerk beerek beerke bekeer bekere bekeer bekere bekree
bekree beeker beekre beeekr beeerk beerek beerke berkee berkee bereke bereek
bereek bereke beeker beekre beeekr beeerk beerek beerke bekeer bekere bekeer
bekere bekree bekree beeker beekre beeekr beeerk beerek beerke berkee berkee
bereke bereek bereek bereke bkeeer bkeere bkeeer bkeere bkeree bkeree bkeeer
bkeere bkeeer bkeere bkeree bkeree bkeeer bkeere bkeeer bkeere bkeree bkeree
bkreee bkreee bkreee bkreee bkreee bkreee beeker beekre beeekr beeerk beerek
beerke bekeer bekere bekeer bekere bekree bekree beeker beekre beeekr beeerk
beerek beerke berkee berkee bereke bereek bereek bereke brekee brekee breeke
breeek breeek breeke brkeee brkeee brkeee brkeee brkeee brkeee brekee brekee
breeke breeek breeek breeke brekee brekee breeke breeek breeek breeke ebeker
ebekre ebeekr ebeerk eberek eberke ebkeer ebkere ebkeer ebkere ebkree ebkree
ebeker ebekre ebeekr ebeerk eberek eberke ebrkee ebrkee ebreke ebreek ebreek
ebreke eebker eebkre eebekr eeberk eebrek eebrke eekber eekbre eekebr eekerb
eekreb eekrbe eeekbr eeekrb eeebkr eeebrk eeerbk eeerkb eerkeb eerkbe eerekb
eerebk eerbek eerbke ekeber ekebre ekeebr ekeerb ekereb ekerbe ekbeer ekbere
ekbeer ekbere ekbree ekbree ekeber ekebre ekeebr ekeerb ekereb ekerbe ekrbee
ekrbee ekrebe ekreeb ekreeb ekrebe eeekbr eeekrb eeebkr eeebrk eeerbk eeerkb
eekebr eekerb eekber eekbre eekrbe eekreb eebker eebkre eebekr eeberk eebrek
eebrke eerkbe eerkeb eerbke eerbek eerebk eerekb erekeb erekbe ereekb ereebk
erebek erebke erkeeb erkebe erkeeb erkebe erkbee erkbee erekeb erekbe ereekb
ereebk erebek erebke erbkee erbkee erbeke erbeek erbeek erbeke eebker eebkre
eebekr eeberk eebrek eebrke eekber eekbre eekebr eekerb eekreb eekrbe eeekbr
eeekrb eeebkr eeebrk eeerbk eeerkb eerkeb eerkbe eerekb eerebk eerbek eerbke
ebeker ebekre ebeekr ebeerk eberek eberke ebkeer ebkere ebkeer ebkere ebkree
ebkree ebeker ebekre ebeekr ebeerk eberek eberke ebrkee ebrkee ebreke ebreek
ebreek ebreke ekbeer ekbere ekbeer ekbere ekbree ekbree ekeber ekebre ekeebr
ekeerb ekereb ekerbe ekeebr ekeerb ekeber ekebre ekerbe ekereb ekreeb ekrebe
ekreeb ekrebe ekrbee ekrbee eebker eebkre eebekr eeberk eebrek eebrke eekber
eekbre eekebr eekerb eekreb eekrbe eeekbr eeekrb eeebkr eeebrk eeerbk eeerkb
eerkeb eerkbe eerekb eerebk eerbek eerbke erbkee erbkee erbeke erbeek erbeek
erbeke erkbee erkbee erkebe erkeeb erkeeb erkebe erekbe erekeb erebke erebek
ereebk ereekb erekeb erekbe ereekb ereebk erebek erebke keeber keebre keeebr
keeerb keereb keerbe kebeer kebere kebeer kebere kebree kebree keeber keebre
keeebr keeerb keereb keerbe kerbee kerbee kerebe kereeb kereeb kerebe keeber
keebre keeebr keeerb keereb keerbe kebeer kebere kebeer kebere kebree kebree
keeber keebre keeebr keeerb keereb keerbe kerbee kerbee kerebe kereeb kereeb
kerebe kbeeer kbeere kbeeer kbeere kberee kberee kbeeer kbeere kbeeer kbeere
kberee kberee kbeeer kbeere kbeeer kbeere kberee kberee kbreee kbreee kbreee
kbreee kbreee kbreee keeber keebre keeebr keeerb keereb keerbe kebeer kebere
kebeer kebere kebree kebree keeber keebre keeebr keeerb keereb keerbe kerbee
kerbee kerebe kereeb kereeb kerebe krebee krebee kreebe kreeeb kreeeb kreebe
krbeee krbeee krbeee krbeee krbeee krbeee krebee krebee kreebe kreeeb kreeeb
kreebe krebee krebee kreebe kreeeb kreeeb kreebe eeekbr eeekrb eeebkr eeebrk
eeerbk eeerkb eekebr eekerb eekber eekbre eekrbe eekreb eebker eebkre eebekr
eeberk eebrek eebrke eerkbe eerkeb eerbke eerbek eerebk eerekb eeekbr eeekrb
eeebkr eeebrk eeerbk eeerkb eekebr eekerb eekber eekbre eekrbe eekreb eebker
eebkre eebekr eeberk eebrek eebrke eerkbe eerkeb eerbke eerbek eerebk eerekb
ekeebr ekeerb ekeber ekebre ekerbe ekereb ekeebr ekeerb ekeber ekebre ekerbe
ekereb ekbeer ekbere ekbeer ekbere ekbree ekbree ekrebe ekreeb ekrbee ekrbee
ekrebe ekreeb ebeker ebekre ebeekr ebeerk eberek eberke ebkeer ebkere ebkeer
ebkere ebkree ebkree ebeker ebekre ebeekr ebeerk eberek eberke ebrkee ebrkee
ebreke ebreek ebreek ebreke erekbe erekeb erebke erebek ereebk ereekb erkebe
erkeeb erkbee erkbee erkebe erkeeb erbkee erbkee erbeke erbeek erbeek erbeke
erekbe erekeb erebke erebek ereebk ereekb reekeb reekbe reeekb reeebk reebek
reebke rekeeb rekebe rekeeb rekebe rekbee rekbee reekeb reekbe reeekb reeebk
reebek reebke rebkee rebkee rebeke rebeek rebeek rebeke reekeb reekbe reeekb
reeebk reebek reebke rekeeb rekebe rekeeb rekebe rekbee rekbee reekeb reekbe
reeekb reeebk reebek reebke rebkee rebkee rebeke rebeek rebeek rebeke rkeeeb
rkeebe rkeeeb rkeebe rkebee rkebee rkeeeb rkeebe rkeeeb rkeebe rkebee rkebee
rkeeeb rkeebe rkeeeb rkeebe rkebee rkebee rkbeee rkbeee rkbeee rkbeee rkbeee
rkbeee reekeb reekbe reeekb reeebk reebek reebke rekeeb rekebe rekeeb rekebe
rekbee rekbee reekeb reekbe reeekb reeebk reebek reebke rebkee rebkee rebeke
rebeek rebeek rebeke rbekee rbekee rbeeke rbeeek rbeeek rbeeke rbkeee rbkeee
rbkeee rbkeee rbkeee rbkeee rbekee rbekee rbeeke rbeeek rbeeek rbeeke rbekee
rbekee rbeeke rbeeek rbeeek rbeeke

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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