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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: beejay
cipher variations:
cffkbz dgglca ehhmdb fiinec gjjofd
hkkpge illqhf jmmrig knnsjh lootki
mppulj nqqvmk orrwnl pssxom qttypn
ruuzqo svvarp twwbsq uxxctr vyydus
wzzevt xaafwu ybbgxv zcchyw addizx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: beejay
Cipher: yvvqzb

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: beejay
Cipher: AAAAB AABAA AABAA BBBAA AAAAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: beejay
cipher variations:
cffkbzenncbvgvvubriddmbnkllebjmttwbfqjjgbxsrrybt
uzzqbpwhhiblyppabhaxxsbddgglcafoodcwhwwvcsjeenco
lmmfcknuuxcgrkkhcytsszcuvaarcqxiijcmzqqbcibyytce
ehhmdbgppedxixxwdtkffodpmnngdlovvydhsllidzuttadv
wbbsdryjjkdnarrcdjczzudffiinechqqfeyjyyxeulggpeq
noohempwwzeitmmjeavuubewxccteszkkleobssdekdaaveg
gjjofdirrgfzkzzyfvmhhqfroppifnqxxafjunnkfbwvvcfx
ydduftallmfpctteflebbwfhhkkpgejsshgalaazgwniirgs
pqqjgoryybgkvoolgcxwwdgyzeevgubmmngqduufgmfccxgi
illqhfkttihbmbbahxojjshtqrrkhpszzchlwppmhdyxxehz
affwhvcnnohrevvghngddyhjjmmrigluujicnccbiypkktiu
rssliqtaadimxqqniezyyfiabggxiwdoopisfwwhioheezik
knnsjhmvvkjdoddcjzqllujvsttmjrubbejnyrrojfazzgjb
chhyjxeppqjtgxxijpiffajllootkinwwlkepeedkarmmvkw
tuunksvccfkozsspkgbaahkcdiizkyfqqrkuhyyjkqjggbkm
mppuljoxxmlfqffelbsnnwlxuvvoltwddglpattqlhcbbild
ejjalzgrrslvizzklrkhhclnnqqvmkpyynmgrggfmctooxmy
vwwpmuxeehmqbuurmidccjmefkkbmahsstmwjaalmsliidmo
orrwnlqzzonhshhgnduppynzwxxqnvyffinrcvvsnjeddknf
gllcnbittunxkbbmntmjjenppssxomraapoitiihoevqqzoa
xyyrowzggjosdwwtokfeeloghmmdocjuuvoylccnounkkfoq
qttypnsbbqpjujjipfwrrapbyzzspxahhkptexxuplgffmph
innepdkvvwpzmddopvollgprruuzqotccrqkvkkjqgxssbqc
zaatqybiilqufyyvqmhggnqijoofqelwwxqaneepqwpmmhqs
svvarpuddsrlwllkrhyttcrdabburzcjjmrvgzzwrnihhorj
kppgrfmxxyrboffqrxqnnirttwwbsqveetsmxmmlsizuudse
bccvsadkknswhaaxsojiipsklqqhsgnyyzscpggrsyroojsu
uxxctrwffutnynnmtjavvetfcddwtbellotxibbytpkjjqtl
mrrithozzatdqhhstzsppktvvyydusxggvuozoonukbwwfug
deexucfmmpuyjcczuqlkkrumnssjuipaabueriituatqqluw
wzzevtyhhwvpappovlcxxgvheffyvdgnnqvzkddavrmllsvn
ottkvjqbbcvfsjjuvburrmvxxaafwuziixwqbqqpwmdyyhwi
fggzwehoorwaleebwsnmmtwopuulwkrccdwgtkkvwcvssnwy
ybbgxvajjyxrcrrqxnezzixjghhaxfippsxbmffcxtonnuxp
qvvmxlsddexhullwxdwttoxzzcchywbkkzysdssryofaajyk
hiibygjqqtycnggdyupoovyqrwwnymteefyivmmxyexuupya
addizxcllaztettszpgbbkzlijjczhkrruzdohhezvqppwzr
sxxoznuffgzjwnnyzfyvvqzbbeejaydmmbaufuutaqhcclam
jkkdailssvaepiifawrqqxastyypaovgghakxoozagzwwrac

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: beejay
Cipher: orrwnl

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: beejay
Cipher: 215151421145

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: beejay
method variations:
gkkofdmpptliruuyqowzzdvt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b e e j a y 
2 5 5 4 1 4 
1 1 1 2 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
255414111215
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: beejay
Cipher: wuqafv

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: beejay
method variations:
vvqbqk vqbqkv qbqkvv
bqkvvq qkvvqb kvvqbq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: beejay

all 720 cipher variations:
beejay beejya beeajy beeayj beeyaj beeyja bejeay bejeya bejaey bejaye bejyae
bejyea beajey beajye beaejy beaeyj beayej beayje beyjae beyjea beyaje beyaej
beyeaj beyeja beejay beejya beeajy beeayj beeyaj beeyja bejeay bejeya bejaey
bejaye bejyae bejyea beajey beajye beaejy beaeyj beayej beayje beyjae beyjea
beyaje beyaej beyeaj beyeja bjeeay bjeeya bjeaey bjeaye bjeyae bjeyea bjeeay
bjeeya bjeaey bjeaye bjeyae bjeyea bjaeey bjaeye bjaeey bjaeye bjayee bjayee
bjyeae bjyeea bjyaee bjyaee bjyeae bjyeea baejey baejye baeejy baeeyj baeyej
baeyje bajeey bajeye bajeey bajeye bajyee bajyee baejey baejye baeejy baeeyj
baeyej baeyje bayjee bayjee bayeje bayeej bayeej bayeje byejae byejea byeaje
byeaej byeeaj byeeja byjeae byjeea byjaee byjaee byjeae byjeea byajee byajee
byaeje byaeej byaeej byaeje byejae byejea byeaje byeaej byeeaj byeeja ebejay
ebejya ebeajy ebeayj ebeyaj ebeyja ebjeay ebjeya ebjaey ebjaye ebjyae ebjyea
ebajey ebajye ebaejy ebaeyj ebayej ebayje ebyjae ebyjea ebyaje ebyaej ebyeaj
ebyeja eebjay eebjya eebajy eebayj eebyaj eebyja eejbay eejbya eejaby eejayb
eejyab eejyba eeajby eeajyb eeabjy eeabyj eeaybj eeayjb eeyjab eeyjba eeyajb
eeyabj eeybaj eeybja ejebay ejebya ejeaby ejeayb ejeyab ejeyba ejbeay ejbeya
ejbaey ejbaye ejbyae ejbyea ejabey ejabye ejaeby ejaeyb ejayeb ejaybe ejybae
ejybea ejyabe ejyaeb ejyeab ejyeba eaejby eaejyb eaebjy eaebyj eaeybj eaeyjb
eajeby eajeyb eajbey eajbye eajybe eajyeb eabjey eabjye eabejy eabeyj eabyej
eabyje eayjbe eayjeb eaybje eaybej eayebj eayejb eyejab eyejba eyeajb eyeabj
eyebaj eyebja eyjeab eyjeba eyjaeb eyjabe eyjbae eyjbea eyajeb eyajbe eyaejb
eyaebj eyabej eyabje eybjae eybjea eybaje eybaej eybeaj eybeja eebjay eebjya
eebajy eebayj eebyaj eebyja eejbay eejbya eejaby eejayb eejyab eejyba eeajby
eeajyb eeabjy eeabyj eeaybj eeayjb eeyjab eeyjba eeyajb eeyabj eeybaj eeybja
ebejay ebejya ebeajy ebeayj ebeyaj ebeyja ebjeay ebjeya ebjaey ebjaye ebjyae
ebjyea ebajey ebajye ebaejy ebaeyj ebayej ebayje ebyjae ebyjea ebyaje ebyaej
ebyeaj ebyeja ejbeay ejbeya ejbaey ejbaye ejbyae ejbyea ejebay ejebya ejeaby
ejeayb ejeyab ejeyba ejaeby ejaeyb ejabey ejabye ejaybe ejayeb ejyeab ejyeba
ejyaeb ejyabe ejybae ejybea eabjey eabjye eabejy eabeyj eabyej eabyje eajbey
eajbye eajeby eajeyb eajyeb eajybe eaejby eaejyb eaebjy eaebyj eaeybj eaeyjb
eayjeb eayjbe eayejb eayebj eaybej eaybje eybjae eybjea eybaje eybaej eybeaj
eybeja eyjbae eyjbea eyjabe eyjaeb eyjeab eyjeba eyajbe eyajeb eyabje eyabej
eyaebj eyaejb eyejab eyejba eyeajb eyeabj eyebaj eyebja jeebay jeebya jeeaby
jeeayb jeeyab jeeyba jebeay jebeya jebaey jebaye jebyae jebyea jeabey jeabye
jeaeby jeaeyb jeayeb jeaybe jeybae jeybea jeyabe jeyaeb jeyeab jeyeba jeebay
jeebya jeeaby jeeayb jeeyab jeeyba jebeay jebeya jebaey jebaye jebyae jebyea
jeabey jeabye jeaeby jeaeyb jeayeb jeaybe jeybae jeybea jeyabe jeyaeb jeyeab
jeyeba jbeeay jbeeya jbeaey jbeaye jbeyae jbeyea jbeeay jbeeya jbeaey jbeaye
jbeyae jbeyea jbaeey jbaeye jbaeey jbaeye jbayee jbayee jbyeae jbyeea jbyaee
jbyaee jbyeae jbyeea jaebey jaebye jaeeby jaeeyb jaeyeb jaeybe jabeey jabeye
jabeey jabeye jabyee jabyee jaebey jaebye jaeeby jaeeyb jaeyeb jaeybe jaybee
jaybee jayebe jayeeb jayeeb jayebe jyebae jyebea jyeabe jyeaeb jyeeab jyeeba
jybeae jybeea jybaee jybaee jybeae jybeea jyabee jyabee jyaebe jyaeeb jyaeeb
jyaebe jyebae jyebea jyeabe jyeaeb jyeeab jyeeba aeejby aeejyb aeebjy aeebyj
aeeybj aeeyjb aejeby aejeyb aejbey aejbye aejybe aejyeb aebjey aebjye aebejy
aebeyj aebyej aebyje aeyjbe aeyjeb aeybje aeybej aeyebj aeyejb aeejby aeejyb
aeebjy aeebyj aeeybj aeeyjb aejeby aejeyb aejbey aejbye aejybe aejyeb aebjey
aebjye aebejy aebeyj aebyej aebyje aeyjbe aeyjeb aeybje aeybej aeyebj aeyejb
ajeeby ajeeyb ajebey ajebye ajeybe ajeyeb ajeeby ajeeyb ajebey ajebye ajeybe
ajeyeb ajbeey ajbeye ajbeey ajbeye ajbyee ajbyee ajyebe ajyeeb ajybee ajybee
ajyebe ajyeeb abejey abejye abeejy abeeyj abeyej abeyje abjeey abjeye abjeey
abjeye abjyee abjyee abejey abejye abeejy abeeyj abeyej abeyje abyjee abyjee
abyeje abyeej abyeej abyeje ayejbe ayejeb ayebje ayebej ayeebj ayeejb ayjebe
ayjeeb ayjbee ayjbee ayjebe ayjeeb aybjee aybjee aybeje aybeej aybeej aybeje
ayejbe ayejeb ayebje ayebej ayeebj ayeejb yeejab yeejba yeeajb yeeabj yeebaj
yeebja yejeab yejeba yejaeb yejabe yejbae yejbea yeajeb yeajbe yeaejb yeaebj
yeabej yeabje yebjae yebjea yebaje yebaej yebeaj yebeja yeejab yeejba yeeajb
yeeabj yeebaj yeebja yejeab yejeba yejaeb yejabe yejbae yejbea yeajeb yeajbe
yeaejb yeaebj yeabej yeabje yebjae yebjea yebaje yebaej yebeaj yebeja yjeeab
yjeeba yjeaeb yjeabe yjebae yjebea yjeeab yjeeba yjeaeb yjeabe yjebae yjebea
yjaeeb yjaebe yjaeeb yjaebe yjabee yjabee yjbeae yjbeea yjbaee yjbaee yjbeae
yjbeea yaejeb yaejbe yaeejb yaeebj yaebej yaebje yajeeb yajebe yajeeb yajebe
yajbee yajbee yaejeb yaejbe yaeejb yaeebj yaebej yaebje yabjee yabjee yabeje
yabeej yabeej yabeje ybejae ybejea ybeaje ybeaej ybeeaj ybeeja ybjeae ybjeea
ybjaee ybjaee ybjeae ybjeea ybajee ybajee ybaeje ybaeej ybaeej ybaeje ybejae
ybejea ybeaje ybeaej ybeeaj ybeeja

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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