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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: basuki
cipher variations:
cbtvlj dcuwmk edvxnl fewyom gfxzpn
hgyaqo ihzbrp jiacsq kjbdtr lkceus
mldfvt nmegwu onfhxv pogiyw qphjzx
rqikay srjlbz tskmca utlndb vumoec
wvnpfd xwoqge yxprhf zyqsig azrtjh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: basuki
Cipher: yzhfpr

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: basuki

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: basuki
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: basuki
Cipher: onfhxv

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: basuki
Cipher: 211134545242

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: basuki
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b a s u k i 
2 1 3 5 5 4 
1 1 4 4 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: basuki
Cipher: bxuatg

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Method #3

Plaintext: basuki
method variations:
alyyrg lyyrga yyrgal
yrgaly rgalyy galyyr

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: basuki

all 720 cipher variations:
basuki basuik baskui baskiu basiku basiuk bauski bausik bauksi baukis bauiks
bauisk bakusi bakuis baksui baksiu bakisu bakius baiuks baiusk baikus baiksu
baisku baisuk bsauki bsauik bsakui bsakiu bsaiku bsaiuk bsuaki bsuaik bsukai
bsukia bsuika bsuiak bskuai bskuia bskaui bskaiu bskiau bskiua bsiuka bsiuak
bsikua bsikau bsiaku bsiauk busaki busaik buskai buskia busika busiak buaski
buasik buaksi buakis buaiks buaisk bukasi bukais buksai buksia bukisa bukias
buiaks buiask buikas buiksa buiska buisak bksuai bksuia bksaui bksaiu bksiau
bksiua bkusai bkusia bkuasi bkuais bkuias bkuisa bkausi bkauis bkasui bkasiu
bkaisu bkaius bkiuas bkiusa bkiaus bkiasu bkisau bkisua bisuka bisuak biskua
biskau bisaku bisauk biuska biusak biuksa biukas biuaks biuask bikusa bikuas
biksua biksau bikasu bikaus biauks biausk biakus biaksu biasku biasuk absuki
absuik abskui abskiu absiku absiuk abuski abusik abuksi abukis abuiks abuisk
abkusi abkuis abksui abksiu abkisu abkius abiuks abiusk abikus abiksu abisku
abisuk asbuki asbuik asbkui asbkiu asbiku asbiuk asubki asubik asukbi asukib
asuikb asuibk askubi askuib askbui askbiu askibu askiub asiukb asiubk asikub
asikbu asibku asibuk ausbki ausbik auskbi auskib ausikb ausibk aubski aubsik
aubksi aubkis aubiks aubisk aukbsi aukbis auksbi auksib aukisb aukibs auibks
auibsk auikbs auiksb auiskb auisbk aksubi aksuib aksbui aksbiu aksibu aksiub
akusbi akusib akubsi akubis akuibs akuisb akbusi akbuis akbsui akbsiu akbisu
akbius akiubs akiusb akibus akibsu akisbu akisub aisukb aisubk aiskub aiskbu
aisbku aisbuk aiuskb aiusbk aiuksb aiukbs aiubks aiubsk aikusb aikubs aiksub
aiksbu aikbsu aikbus aibuks aibusk aibkus aibksu aibsku aibsuk sabuki sabuik
sabkui sabkiu sabiku sabiuk saubki saubik saukbi saukib sauikb sauibk sakubi
sakuib sakbui sakbiu sakibu sakiub saiukb saiubk saikub saikbu saibku saibuk
sbauki sbauik sbakui sbakiu sbaiku sbaiuk sbuaki sbuaik sbukai sbukia sbuika
sbuiak sbkuai sbkuia sbkaui sbkaiu sbkiau sbkiua sbiuka sbiuak sbikua sbikau
sbiaku sbiauk subaki subaik subkai subkia subika subiak suabki suabik suakbi
suakib suaikb suaibk sukabi sukaib sukbai sukbia sukiba sukiab suiakb suiabk
suikab suikba suibka suibak skbuai skbuia skbaui skbaiu skbiau skbiua skubai
skubia skuabi skuaib skuiab skuiba skaubi skauib skabui skabiu skaibu skaiub
skiuab skiuba skiaub skiabu skibau skibua sibuka sibuak sibkua sibkau sibaku
sibauk siubka siubak siukba siukab siuakb siuabk sikuba sikuab sikbua sikbau
sikabu sikaub siaukb siaubk siakub siakbu siabku siabuk uasbki uasbik uaskbi
uaskib uasikb uasibk uabski uabsik uabksi uabkis uabiks uabisk uakbsi uakbis
uaksbi uaksib uakisb uakibs uaibks uaibsk uaikbs uaiksb uaiskb uaisbk usabki
usabik usakbi usakib usaikb usaibk usbaki usbaik usbkai usbkia usbika usbiak
uskbai uskbia uskabi uskaib uskiab uskiba usibka usibak usikba usikab usiakb
usiabk ubsaki ubsaik ubskai ubskia ubsika ubsiak ubaski ubasik ubaksi ubakis
ubaiks ubaisk ubkasi ubkais ubksai ubksia ubkisa ubkias ubiaks ubiask ubikas
ubiksa ubiska ubisak uksbai uksbia uksabi uksaib uksiab uksiba ukbsai ukbsia
ukbasi ukbais ukbias ukbisa ukabsi ukabis ukasbi ukasib ukaisb ukaibs ukibas
ukibsa ukiabs ukiasb ukisab ukisba uisbka uisbak uiskba uiskab uisakb uisabk
uibska uibsak uibksa uibkas uibaks uibask uikbsa uikbas uiksba uiksab uikasb
uikabs uiabks uiabsk uiakbs uiaksb uiaskb uiasbk kasubi kasuib kasbui kasbiu
kasibu kasiub kausbi kausib kaubsi kaubis kauibs kauisb kabusi kabuis kabsui
kabsiu kabisu kabius kaiubs kaiusb kaibus kaibsu kaisbu kaisub ksaubi ksauib
ksabui ksabiu ksaibu ksaiub ksuabi ksuaib ksubai ksubia ksuiba ksuiab ksbuai
ksbuia ksbaui ksbaiu ksbiau ksbiua ksiuba ksiuab ksibua ksibau ksiabu ksiaub
kusabi kusaib kusbai kusbia kusiba kusiab kuasbi kuasib kuabsi kuabis kuaibs
kuaisb kubasi kubais kubsai kubsia kubisa kubias kuiabs kuiasb kuibas kuibsa
kuisba kuisab kbsuai kbsuia kbsaui kbsaiu kbsiau kbsiua kbusai kbusia kbuasi
kbuais kbuias kbuisa kbausi kbauis kbasui kbasiu kbaisu kbaius kbiuas kbiusa
kbiaus kbiasu kbisau kbisua kisuba kisuab kisbua kisbau kisabu kisaub kiusba
kiusab kiubsa kiubas kiuabs kiuasb kibusa kibuas kibsua kibsau kibasu kibaus
kiaubs kiausb kiabus kiabsu kiasbu kiasub iasukb iasubk iaskub iaskbu iasbku
iasbuk iauskb iausbk iauksb iaukbs iaubks iaubsk iakusb iakubs iaksub iaksbu
iakbsu iakbus iabuks iabusk iabkus iabksu iabsku iabsuk isaukb isaubk isakub
isakbu isabku isabuk isuakb isuabk isukab isukba isubka isubak iskuab iskuba
iskaub iskabu iskbau iskbua isbuka isbuak isbkua isbkau isbaku isbauk iusakb
iusabk iuskab iuskba iusbka iusbak iuaskb iuasbk iuaksb iuakbs iuabks iuabsk
iukasb iukabs iuksab iuksba iukbsa iukbas iubaks iubask iubkas iubksa iubska
iubsak iksuab iksuba iksaub iksabu iksbau iksbua ikusab ikusba ikuasb ikuabs
ikubas ikubsa ikausb ikaubs ikasub ikasbu ikabsu ikabus ikbuas ikbusa ikbaus
ikbasu ikbsau ikbsua ibsuka ibsuak ibskua ibskau ibsaku ibsauk ibuska ibusak
ibuksa ibukas ibuaks ibuask ibkusa ibkuas ibksua ibksau ibkasu ibkaus ibauks
ibausk ibakus ibaksu ibasku ibasuk

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History of cryptography
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