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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: basset
cipher variations:
cbttfu dcuugv edvvhw fewwix gfxxjy
hgyykz ihzzla jiaamb kjbbnc lkccod
mlddpe nmeeqf onffrg poggsh qphhti
rqiiuj srjjvk tskkwl utllxm vummyn
wvnnzo xwooap yxppbq zyqqcr azrrds

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: basset
Cipher: yzhhvg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: basset
Cipher: AAAAB AAAAA BAAAB BAAAB AABAA BAABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: basset
cipher variations:
cbttfuebddnggbnnvsibxxdekbhhlqmbrrtcqblljasbvvrm
ubffzywbpphkybzzpwabjjxidcuugvfceeohhcoowtjcyyef
lciimrncssudrcmmkbtcwwsnvcggazxcqqilzcaaqxbckkyj
edvvhwgdffpiidppxukdzzfgmdjjnsodttvesdnnlcudxxto
wdhhbaydrrjmadbbrycdllzkfewwixheggqjjeqqyvleaagh
nekkotpeuuwfteoomdveyyupxeiicbzessknbeccszdemmal
gfxxjyifhhrkkfrrzwmfbbhiofllpuqfvvxgufppnewfzzvq
yfjjdcafttlocfddtaefnnbmhgyykzjgiisllgssaxngccij
pgmmqvrgwwyhvgqqofxgaawrzgkkedbguumpdgeeubfgoocn
ihzzlakhjjtmmhttbyohddjkqhnnrwshxxziwhrrpgyhbbxs
ahllfechvvnqehffvcghppdojiaamblikkunniuuczpieekl
rioosxtiyyajxissqhziccytbimmgfdiwworfiggwdhiqqep
kjbbncmjllvoojvvdaqjfflmsjpptyujzzbkyjttriajddzu
cjnnhgejxxpsgjhhxeijrrfqlkccodnkmmwppkwwebrkggmn
tkqquzvkaaclzkuusjbkeeavdkooihfkyyqthkiiyfjkssgr
mlddpeolnnxqqlxxfcslhhnoulrrvawlbbdmalvvtkclffbw
elppjiglzzruiljjzgkltthsnmeeqfpmooyrrmyygdtmiiop
vmsswbxmccenbmwwuldmggcxfmqqkjhmaasvjmkkahlmuuit
onffrgqnppzssnzzheunjjpqwnttxcynddfocnxxvmenhhdy
gnrrlkinbbtwknllbimnvvjupoggshroqqattoaaifvokkqr
xouuydzoeegpdoyywnfoiiezhossmljoccuxlommcjnowwkv
qphhtisprrbuupbbjgwpllrsypvvzeapffhqepzzxogpjjfa
ipttnmkpddvympnndkopxxlwrqiiujtqsscvvqcckhxqmmst
zqwwafbqggirfqaayphqkkgbjquuonlqeewznqooelpqyymx
srjjvkurttdwwrddliyrnntuarxxbgcrhhjsgrbbzqirllhc
krvvpomrffxaorppfmqrzznytskkwlvsuuexxseemjzsoouv
bsyychdsiikthsccarjsmmidlswwqpnsggybpsqqgnrsaaoz
utllxmwtvvfyytffnkatppvwctzzdietjjluitddbsktnnje
mtxxrqothhzcqtrrhostbbpavummynxuwwgzzuggolbuqqwx
duaaejfukkmvjueectluookfnuyysrpuiiadrussiptuccqb
wvnnzoyvxxhaavhhpmcvrrxyevbbfkgvllnwkvffdumvpplg
ovzztsqvjjbesvttjquvddrcxwooapzwyyibbwiiqndwssyz
fwccglhwmmoxlwggevnwqqmhpwaautrwkkcftwuukrvweesd
yxppbqaxzzjccxjjroexttzagxddhmixnnpymxhhfwoxrrni
qxbbvusxlldguxvvlswxfftezyqqcrbyaakddykkspfyuuab
hyeeinjyooqznyiigxpyssojryccwvtymmehvywwmtxygguf
azrrdsczbbleezlltqgzvvbcizffjokzppraozjjhyqzttpk
szddxwuznnfiwzxxnuyzhhvgbassetdaccmffammurhawwcd
jaggkplaqqsbpakkizrauuqltaeeyxvaoogjxayyovzaiiwh

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: basset
Cipher: onffrg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: basset
Cipher: 211134345144

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: basset
method variations:
gfxxkymlccpdrqhhuiwvnnzo

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b a s s e t 
2 1 3 3 5 4 
1 1 4 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
213354114414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: basset
Cipher: bnuatq

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Method #3

Plaintext: basset
method variations:
aloyqi loyqia oyqial
yqialo qialoy ialoyq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: basset

all 720 cipher variations:
basset basste basest basets bastes bastse basset basste basest basets bastes
bastse baesst baests baesst baests baetss baetss batses batsse batess batess
batses batsse bsaset bsaste bsaest bsaets bsates bsatse bssaet bssate bsseat
bsseta bsstea bsstae bsesat bsesta bseast bseats bsetas bsetsa bstsea bstsae
bstesa bsteas bstaes bstase bssaet bssate bsseat bsseta bsstea bsstae bsaset
bsaste bsaest bsaets bsates bsatse bseast bseats bsesat bsesta bsetsa bsetas
bstaes bstase bsteas bstesa bstsea bstsae bessat bessta besast besats bestas
bestsa bessat bessta besast besats bestas bestsa beasst beasts beasst beasts
beatss beatss betsas betssa betass betass betsas betssa btssea btssae btsesa
btseas btsaes btsase btssea btssae btsesa btseas btsaes btsase btessa btesas
btessa btesas bteass bteass btases btasse btaess btaess btases btasse absset
absste absest absets abstes abstse absset absste absest absets abstes abstse
abesst abests abesst abests abetss abetss abtses abtsse abtess abtess abtses
abtsse asbset asbste asbest asbets asbtes asbtse assbet assbte assebt assetb
assteb asstbe asesbt asestb asebst asebts asetbs asetsb astseb astsbe astesb
astebs astbes astbse assbet assbte assebt assetb assteb asstbe asbset asbste
asbest asbets asbtes asbtse asebst asebts asesbt asestb asetsb asetbs astbes
astbse astebs astesb astseb astsbe aessbt aesstb aesbst aesbts aestbs aestsb
aessbt aesstb aesbst aesbts aestbs aestsb aebsst aebsts aebsst aebsts aebtss
aebtss aetsbs aetssb aetbss aetbss aetsbs aetssb atsseb atssbe atsesb atsebs
atsbes atsbse atsseb atssbe atsesb atsebs atsbes atsbse atessb atesbs atessb
atesbs atebss atebss atbses atbsse atbess atbess atbses atbsse sabset sabste
sabest sabets sabtes sabtse sasbet sasbte sasebt sasetb sasteb sastbe saesbt
saestb saebst saebts saetbs saetsb satseb satsbe satesb satebs satbes satbse
sbaset sbaste sbaest sbaets sbates sbatse sbsaet sbsate sbseat sbseta sbstea
sbstae sbesat sbesta sbeast sbeats sbetas sbetsa sbtsea sbtsae sbtesa sbteas
sbtaes sbtase ssbaet ssbate ssbeat ssbeta ssbtea ssbtae ssabet ssabte ssaebt
ssaetb ssateb ssatbe sseabt sseatb ssebat ssebta ssetba ssetab sstaeb sstabe
ssteab ssteba sstbea sstbae sebsat sebsta sebast sebats sebtas sebtsa sesbat
sesbta sesabt sesatb sestab sestba seasbt seastb seabst seabts seatbs seatsb
setsab setsba setasb setabs setbas setbsa stbsea stbsae stbesa stbeas stbaes
stbase stsbea stsbae stseba stseab stsaeb stsabe stesba stesab stebsa stebas
steabs steasb staseb stasbe staesb staebs stabes stabse sasbet sasbte sasebt
sasetb sasteb sastbe sabset sabste sabest sabets sabtes sabtse saebst saebts
saesbt saestb saetsb saetbs satbes satbse satebs satesb satseb satsbe ssabet
ssabte ssaebt ssaetb ssateb ssatbe ssbaet ssbate ssbeat ssbeta ssbtea ssbtae
ssebat ssebta sseabt sseatb ssetab ssetba sstbea sstbae ssteba ssteab sstaeb
sstabe sbsaet sbsate sbseat sbseta sbstea sbstae sbaset sbaste sbaest sbaets
sbates sbatse sbeast sbeats sbesat sbesta sbetsa sbetas sbtaes sbtase sbteas
sbtesa sbtsea sbtsae sesbat sesbta sesabt sesatb sestab sestba sebsat sebsta
sebast sebats sebtas sebtsa seabst seabts seasbt seastb seatsb seatbs setbas
setbsa setabs setasb setsab setsba stsbea stsbae stseba stseab stsaeb stsabe
stbsea stbsae stbesa stbeas stbaes stbase stebsa stebas stesba stesab steasb
steabs stabes stabse staebs staesb staseb stasbe eassbt easstb easbst easbts
eastbs eastsb eassbt easstb easbst easbts eastbs eastsb eabsst eabsts eabsst
eabsts eabtss eabtss eatsbs eatssb eatbss eatbss eatsbs eatssb esasbt esastb
esabst esabts esatbs esatsb essabt essatb essbat essbta esstba esstab esbsat
esbsta esbast esbats esbtas esbtsa estsba estsab estbsa estbas estabs estasb
essabt essatb essbat essbta esstba esstab esasbt esastb esabst esabts esatbs
esatsb esbast esbats esbsat esbsta esbtsa esbtas estabs estasb estbas estbsa
estsba estsab ebssat ebssta ebsast ebsats ebstas ebstsa ebssat ebssta ebsast
ebsats ebstas ebstsa ebasst ebasts ebasst ebasts ebatss ebatss ebtsas ebtssa
ebtass ebtass ebtsas ebtssa etssba etssab etsbsa etsbas etsabs etsasb etssba
etssab etsbsa etsbas etsabs etsasb etbssa etbsas etbssa etbsas etbass etbass
etasbs etassb etabss etabss etasbs etassb tasseb tassbe tasesb tasebs tasbes
tasbse tasseb tassbe tasesb tasebs tasbes tasbse taessb taesbs taessb taesbs
taebss taebss tabses tabsse tabess tabess tabses tabsse tsaseb tsasbe tsaesb
tsaebs tsabes tsabse tssaeb tssabe tsseab tsseba tssbea tssbae tsesab tsesba
tseasb tseabs tsebas tsebsa tsbsea tsbsae tsbesa tsbeas tsbaes tsbase tssaeb
tssabe tsseab tsseba tssbea tssbae tsaseb tsasbe tsaesb tsaebs tsabes tsabse
tseasb tseabs tsesab tsesba tsebsa tsebas tsbaes tsbase tsbeas tsbesa tsbsea
tsbsae tessab tessba tesasb tesabs tesbas tesbsa tessab tessba tesasb tesabs
tesbas tesbsa teassb teasbs teassb teasbs teabss teabss tebsas tebssa tebass
tebass tebsas tebssa tbssea tbssae tbsesa tbseas tbsaes tbsase tbssea tbssae
tbsesa tbseas tbsaes tbsase tbessa tbesas tbessa tbesas tbeass tbeass tbases
tbasse tbaess tbaess tbases tbasse

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History of cryptography
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