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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: barone
cipher variations:
cbspof dctqpg edurqh fevsri gfwtsj
hgxutk ihyvul jizwvm kjaxwn lkbyxo
mlczyp nmdazq onebar pofcbs qpgdct
rqhedu srifev tsjgfw utkhgx vulihy
wvmjiz xwnkja yxolkb zypmlc azqnmd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: barone
Cipher: yzilmv

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: barone

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: barone
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: barone
Cipher: onebar

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: barone
Cipher: 211124433351

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: barone
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b a r o n e 
2 1 2 4 3 5 
1 1 4 3 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: barone
Cipher: brxaoc

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Method #3

Plaintext: barone
method variations:
aftnxf ftnxfa tnxfaf
nxfaft xfaftn faftnx

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: barone

all 720 cipher variations:
barone baroen barnoe barneo bareno bareon baorne baoren baonre baoner baoenr
baoern banore banoer banroe banreo banero baneor baeonr baeorn baenor baenro
baerno baeron braone braoen branoe braneo braeno braeon broane broaen bronae
bronea broena broean brnoae brnoea brnaoe brnaeo brneao brneoa breona breoan
brenoa brenao breano breaon borane boraen bornae bornea borena borean boarne
boaren boanre boaner boaenr boaern bonare bonaer bonrae bonrea bonera bonear
boeanr boearn boenar boenra boerna boeran bnroae bnroea bnraoe bnraeo bnreao
bnreoa bnorae bnorea bnoare bnoaer bnoear bnoera bnaore bnaoer bnaroe bnareo
bnaero bnaeor bneoar bneora bneaor bnearo bnerao bneroa berona beroan bernoa
bernao berano beraon beorna beoran beonra beonar beoanr beoarn benora benoar
benroa benrao benaro benaor beaonr beaorn beanor beanro bearno bearon abrone
abroen abrnoe abrneo abreno abreon aborne aboren abonre aboner aboenr aboern
abnore abnoer abnroe abnreo abnero abneor abeonr abeorn abenor abenro aberno
aberon arbone arboen arbnoe arbneo arbeno arbeon arobne aroben aronbe aroneb
aroenb aroebn arnobe arnoeb arnboe arnbeo arnebo arneob areonb areobn arenob
arenbo arebno arebon aorbne aorben aornbe aorneb aorenb aorebn aobrne aobren
aobnre aobner aobenr aobern aonbre aonber aonrbe aonreb aonerb aonebr aoebnr
aoebrn aoenbr aoenrb aoernb aoerbn anrobe anroeb anrboe anrbeo anrebo anreob
anorbe anoreb anobre anober anoebr anoerb anbore anboer anbroe anbreo anbero
anbeor aneobr aneorb anebor anebro anerbo anerob aeronb aerobn aernob aernbo
aerbno aerbon aeornb aeorbn aeonrb aeonbr aeobnr aeobrn aenorb aenobr aenrob
aenrbo aenbro aenbor aebonr aeborn aebnor aebnro aebrno aebron rabone raboen
rabnoe rabneo rabeno rabeon raobne raoben raonbe raoneb raoenb raoebn ranobe
ranoeb ranboe ranbeo ranebo raneob raeonb raeobn raenob raenbo raebno raebon
rbaone rbaoen rbanoe rbaneo rbaeno rbaeon rboane rboaen rbonae rbonea rboena
rboean rbnoae rbnoea rbnaoe rbnaeo rbneao rbneoa rbeona rbeoan rbenoa rbenao
rbeano rbeaon robane robaen robnae robnea robena robean roabne roaben roanbe
roaneb roaenb roaebn ronabe ronaeb ronbae ronbea roneba roneab roeanb roeabn
roenab roenba roebna roeban rnboae rnboea rnbaoe rnbaeo rnbeao rnbeoa rnobae
rnobea rnoabe rnoaeb rnoeab rnoeba rnaobe rnaoeb rnaboe rnabeo rnaebo rnaeob
rneoab rneoba rneaob rneabo rnebao rneboa rebona reboan rebnoa rebnao rebano
rebaon reobna reoban reonba reonab reoanb reoabn renoba renoab renboa renbao
renabo renaob reaonb reaobn reanob reanbo reabno reabon oarbne oarben oarnbe
oarneb oarenb oarebn oabrne oabren oabnre oabner oabenr oabern oanbre oanber
oanrbe oanreb oanerb oanebr oaebnr oaebrn oaenbr oaenrb oaernb oaerbn orabne
oraben oranbe oraneb oraenb oraebn orbane orbaen orbnae orbnea orbena orbean
ornbae ornbea ornabe ornaeb orneab orneba orebna oreban orenba orenab oreanb
oreabn obrane obraen obrnae obrnea obrena obrean obarne obaren obanre obaner
obaenr obaern obnare obnaer obnrae obnrea obnera obnear obeanr obearn obenar
obenra oberna oberan onrbae onrbea onrabe onraeb onreab onreba onbrae onbrea
onbare onbaer onbear onbera onabre onaber onarbe onareb onaerb onaebr onebar
onebra oneabr onearb onerab onerba oerbna oerban oernba oernab oeranb oerabn
oebrna oebran oebnra oebnar oebanr oebarn oenbra oenbar oenrba oenrab oenarb
oenabr oeabnr oeabrn oeanbr oeanrb oearnb oearbn narobe naroeb narboe narbeo
narebo nareob naorbe naoreb naobre naober naoebr naoerb nabore naboer nabroe
nabreo nabero nabeor naeobr naeorb naebor naebro naerbo naerob nraobe nraoeb
nraboe nrabeo nraebo nraeob nroabe nroaeb nrobae nrobea nroeba nroeab nrboae
nrboea nrbaoe nrbaeo nrbeao nrbeoa nreoba nreoab nreboa nrebao nreabo nreaob
norabe noraeb norbae norbea noreba noreab noarbe noareb noabre noaber noaebr
noaerb nobare nobaer nobrae nobrea nobera nobear noeabr noearb noebar noebra
noerba noerab nbroae nbroea nbraoe nbraeo nbreao nbreoa nborae nborea nboare
nboaer nboear nboera nbaore nbaoer nbaroe nbareo nbaero nbaeor nbeoar nbeora
nbeaor nbearo nberao nberoa neroba neroab nerboa nerbao nerabo neraob neorba
neorab neobra neobar neoabr neoarb nebora neboar nebroa nebrao nebaro nebaor
neaobr neaorb neabor neabro nearbo nearob earonb earobn earnob earnbo earbno
earbon eaornb eaorbn eaonrb eaonbr eaobnr eaobrn eanorb eanobr eanrob eanrbo
eanbro eanbor eabonr eaborn eabnor eabnro eabrno eabron eraonb eraobn eranob
eranbo erabno erabon eroanb eroabn eronab eronba erobna eroban ernoab ernoba
ernaob ernabo ernbao ernboa erbona erboan erbnoa erbnao erbano erbaon eoranb
eorabn eornab eornba eorbna eorban eoarnb eoarbn eoanrb eoanbr eoabnr eoabrn
eonarb eonabr eonrab eonrba eonbra eonbar eobanr eobarn eobnar eobnra eobrna
eobran enroab enroba enraob enrabo enrbao enrboa enorab enorba enoarb enoabr
enobar enobra enaorb enaobr enarob enarbo enabro enabor enboar enbora enbaor
enbaro enbrao enbroa ebrona ebroan ebrnoa ebrnao ebrano ebraon eborna eboran
ebonra ebonar eboanr eboarn ebnora ebnoar ebnroa ebnrao ebnaro ebnaor ebaonr
ebaorn ebanor ebanro ebarno ebaron

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History of cryptography
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