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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: balzer
cipher variations:
cbmafs dcnbgt edochu fepdiv gfqejw
hgrfkx ihsgly jithmz kjuina lkvjob
mlwkpc nmxlqd onymre poznsf qpaotg
rqbpuh srcqvi tsdrwj utesxk vuftyl
wvguzm xwhvan yxiwbo zyjxcp azkydq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: balzer
Cipher: yzoavi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: balzer

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: balzer
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: balzer
Cipher: onymre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: balzer
Cipher: 211113555124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: balzer
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
b a l z e r 
2 1 1 5 5 2 
1 1 3 5 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: balzer
Cipher: bvkaxq

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Method #3

Plaintext: balzer
method variations:
aaxzfi axzfia xzfiaa
zfiaax fiaaxz iaaxzf

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: balzer

all 720 cipher variations:
balzer balzre balezr balerz balrez balrze bazler bazlre bazelr bazerl bazrel
bazrle baezlr baezrl baelzr baelrz baerlz baerzl barzel barzle barezl barelz
barlez barlze blazer blazre blaezr blaerz blarez blarze blzaer blzare blzear
blzera blzrea blzrae blezar blezra bleazr blearz bleraz blerza blrzea blrzae
blreza blreaz blraez blraze bzlaer bzlare bzlear bzlera bzlrea bzlrae bzaler
bzalre bzaelr bzaerl bzarel bzarle bzealr bzearl bzelar bzelra bzerla bzeral
bzrael bzrale bzreal bzrela bzrlea bzrlae belzar belzra belazr belarz belraz
belrza bezlar bezlra bezalr bezarl bezral bezrla beazlr beazrl bealzr bealrz
bearlz bearzl berzal berzla berazl beralz berlaz berlza brlzea brlzae brleza
brleaz brlaez brlaze brzlea brzlae brzela brzeal brzael brzale brezla brezal
brelza brelaz brealz breazl brazel brazle braezl braelz bralez bralze ablzer
ablzre ablezr ablerz ablrez ablrze abzler abzlre abzelr abzerl abzrel abzrle
abezlr abezrl abelzr abelrz aberlz aberzl abrzel abrzle abrezl abrelz abrlez
abrlze albzer albzre albezr alberz albrez albrze alzber alzbre alzebr alzerb
alzreb alzrbe alezbr alezrb alebzr alebrz alerbz alerzb alrzeb alrzbe alrezb
alrebz alrbez alrbze azlber azlbre azlebr azlerb azlreb azlrbe azbler azblre
azbelr azberl azbrel azbrle azeblr azebrl azelbr azelrb azerlb azerbl azrbel
azrble azrebl azrelb azrleb azrlbe aelzbr aelzrb aelbzr aelbrz aelrbz aelrzb
aezlbr aezlrb aezblr aezbrl aezrbl aezrlb aebzlr aebzrl aeblzr aeblrz aebrlz
aebrzl aerzbl aerzlb aerbzl aerblz aerlbz aerlzb arlzeb arlzbe arlezb arlebz
arlbez arlbze arzleb arzlbe arzelb arzebl arzbel arzble arezlb arezbl arelzb
arelbz areblz arebzl arbzel arbzle arbezl arbelz arblez arblze labzer labzre
labezr laberz labrez labrze lazber lazbre lazebr lazerb lazreb lazrbe laezbr
laezrb laebzr laebrz laerbz laerzb larzeb larzbe larezb larebz larbez larbze
lbazer lbazre lbaezr lbaerz lbarez lbarze lbzaer lbzare lbzear lbzera lbzrea
lbzrae lbezar lbezra lbeazr lbearz lberaz lberza lbrzea lbrzae lbreza lbreaz
lbraez lbraze lzbaer lzbare lzbear lzbera lzbrea lzbrae lzaber lzabre lzaebr
lzaerb lzareb lzarbe lzeabr lzearb lzebar lzebra lzerba lzerab lzraeb lzrabe
lzreab lzreba lzrbea lzrbae lebzar lebzra lebazr lebarz lebraz lebrza lezbar
lezbra lezabr lezarb lezrab lezrba leazbr leazrb leabzr leabrz learbz learzb
lerzab lerzba lerazb lerabz lerbaz lerbza lrbzea lrbzae lrbeza lrbeaz lrbaez
lrbaze lrzbea lrzbae lrzeba lrzeab lrzaeb lrzabe lrezba lrezab lrebza lrebaz
lreabz lreazb lrazeb lrazbe lraezb lraebz lrabez lrabze zalber zalbre zalebr
zalerb zalreb zalrbe zabler zablre zabelr zaberl zabrel zabrle zaeblr zaebrl
zaelbr zaelrb zaerlb zaerbl zarbel zarble zarebl zarelb zarleb zarlbe zlaber
zlabre zlaebr zlaerb zlareb zlarbe zlbaer zlbare zlbear zlbera zlbrea zlbrae
zlebar zlebra zleabr zlearb zlerab zlerba zlrbea zlrbae zlreba zlreab zlraeb
zlrabe zblaer zblare zblear zblera zblrea zblrae zbaler zbalre zbaelr zbaerl
zbarel zbarle zbealr zbearl zbelar zbelra zberla zberal zbrael zbrale zbreal
zbrela zbrlea zbrlae zelbar zelbra zelabr zelarb zelrab zelrba zeblar zeblra
zebalr zebarl zebral zebrla zeablr zeabrl zealbr zealrb zearlb zearbl zerbal
zerbla zerabl zeralb zerlab zerlba zrlbea zrlbae zrleba zrleab zrlaeb zrlabe
zrblea zrblae zrbela zrbeal zrbael zrbale zrebla zrebal zrelba zrelab zrealb
zreabl zrabel zrable zraebl zraelb zraleb zralbe ealzbr ealzrb ealbzr ealbrz
ealrbz ealrzb eazlbr eazlrb eazblr eazbrl eazrbl eazrlb eabzlr eabzrl eablzr
eablrz eabrlz eabrzl earzbl earzlb earbzl earblz earlbz earlzb elazbr elazrb
elabzr elabrz elarbz elarzb elzabr elzarb elzbar elzbra elzrba elzrab elbzar
elbzra elbazr elbarz elbraz elbrza elrzba elrzab elrbza elrbaz elrabz elrazb
ezlabr ezlarb ezlbar ezlbra ezlrba ezlrab ezalbr ezalrb ezablr ezabrl ezarbl
ezarlb ezbalr ezbarl ezblar ezblra ezbrla ezbral ezrabl ezralb ezrbal ezrbla
ezrlba ezrlab eblzar eblzra eblazr eblarz eblraz eblrza ebzlar ebzlra ebzalr
ebzarl ebzral ebzrla ebazlr ebazrl ebalzr ebalrz ebarlz ebarzl ebrzal ebrzla
ebrazl ebralz ebrlaz ebrlza erlzba erlzab erlbza erlbaz erlabz erlazb erzlba
erzlab erzbla erzbal erzabl erzalb erbzla erbzal erblza erblaz erbalz erbazl
erazbl erazlb erabzl erablz eralbz eralzb ralzeb ralzbe ralezb ralebz ralbez
ralbze razleb razlbe razelb razebl razbel razble raezlb raezbl raelzb raelbz
raeblz raebzl rabzel rabzle rabezl rabelz rablez rablze rlazeb rlazbe rlaezb
rlaebz rlabez rlabze rlzaeb rlzabe rlzeab rlzeba rlzbea rlzbae rlezab rlezba
rleazb rleabz rlebaz rlebza rlbzea rlbzae rlbeza rlbeaz rlbaez rlbaze rzlaeb
rzlabe rzleab rzleba rzlbea rzlbae rzaleb rzalbe rzaelb rzaebl rzabel rzable
rzealb rzeabl rzelab rzelba rzebla rzebal rzbael rzbale rzbeal rzbela rzblea
rzblae relzab relzba relazb relabz relbaz relbza rezlab rezlba rezalb rezabl
rezbal rezbla reazlb reazbl realzb realbz reablz reabzl rebzal rebzla rebazl
rebalz reblaz reblza rblzea rblzae rbleza rbleaz rblaez rblaze rbzlea rbzlae
rbzela rbzeal rbzael rbzale rbezla rbezal rbelza rbelaz rbealz rbeazl rbazel
rbazle rbaezl rbaelz rbalez rbalze

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History of cryptography
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