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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: ashoka
cipher variations:
btiplb cujqmc dvkrnd ewlsoe fxmtpf
gynuqg hzovrh iapwsi jbqxtj kcryuk
ldszvl metawm nfubxn ogvcyo phwdzp
qixeaq rjyfbr skzgcs tlahdt umbieu
vncjfv wodkgw xpelhx yqfmiy zrgnjz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: ashoka
Cipher: zhslpz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: ashoka
Cipher: AAAAA BAAAB AABBB ABBAB ABAAB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: ashoka
cipher variations:
btiplbbdwrfbbnktzbbxyvtbbhmxnbbrazhbblcdvbbvqfpb
bfehjbbpsjdbbzglxbbjunrbcujqmccexsgccoluaccyzwuc
cinyoccsbaiccmdewccwrgqccgfikccqtkeccahmycckvosc
dvkrnddfythddpmvbddzaxvddjozpddtcbjddnefxddxshrd
dhgjlddrulfddbinzddlwptdewlsoeegzuieeqnwceeabywe
ekpaqeeudckeeofgyeeytiseeihkmeesvmgeecjoaeemxque
fxmtpffhavjffroxdffbczxfflqbrffvedlffpghzffzujtf
fjilnfftwnhffdkpbffnyrvfgynuqggibwkggspyeggcdayg
gmrcsggwfemggqhiaggavkuggkjmogguxoiggelqcggozswg
hzovrhhjcxlhhtqzfhhdebzhhnsdthhxgfnhhrijbhhbwlvh
hlknphhvypjhhfmrdhhpatxhiapwsiikdymiiuragiiefcai
ioteuiiyhgoiisjkciicxmwiimloqiiwzqkiignseiiqbuyi
jbqxtjjleznjjvsbhjjfgdbjjpufvjjzihpjjtkldjjdynxj
jnmprjjxarljjhotfjjrcvzjkcryukkmfaokkwtcikkgheck
kqvgwkkajiqkkulmekkezoykkonqskkybsmkkipugkksdwak
ldszvllngbpllxudjllhifdllrwhxllbkjrllvmnfllfapzl
lportllzctnlljqvhlltexblmetawmmohcqmmyvekmmijgem
msxiymmclksmmwnogmmgbqammqpsummaduommkrwimmufycm
nfubxnnpidrnnzwflnnjkhfnntyjznndmltnnxophnnhcrbn
nrqtvnnbevpnnlsxjnnvgzdnogvcyooqjesooaxgmookligo
ouzkaooenmuooypqiooidscoosruwoocfwqoomtykoowhaeo
phwdzpprkftppbyhnpplmjhppvalbppfonvppzqrjppjetdp
ptsvxppdgxrppnuzlppxibfpqixeaqqslguqqczioqqmnkiq
qwbmcqqgpowqqarskqqkfueqqutwyqqehysqqovamqqyjcgq
rjyfbrrtmhvrrdajprrnoljrrxcndrrhqpxrrbstlrrlgvfr
rvuxzrrfiztrrpwbnrrzkdhrskzgcssuniwssebkqssopmks
sydoessirqyssctumssmhwgsswvyassgjaussqxcossaleis
tlahdttvojxttfclrttpqnlttzepfttjsrzttduvnttnixht
txwzbtthkbvttrydpttbmfjtumbieuuwpkyuugdmsuuqromu
uafqguuktsauuevwouuojyiuuyxacuuilcwuuszequucngku
vncjfvvxqlzvvhentvvrspnvvbgrhvvlutbvvfwxpvvpkzjv
vzybdvvjmdxvvtafrvvdohlvwodkgwwyrmawwifouwwstqow
wchsiwwmvucwwgxyqwwqlakwwazcewwkneywwubgswwepimw
xpelhxxzsnbxxjgpvxxturpxxditjxxnwvdxxhyzrxxrmblx
xbadfxxlofzxxvchtxxfqjnxyqfmiyyatocyykhqwyyuvsqy
yejukyyoxweyyizasyysncmyycbegyympgayywdiuyygrkoy
zrgnjzzbupdzzlirxzzvwtrzzfkvlzzpyxfzzjabtzztodnz
zdcfhzznqhbzzxejvzzhslpzashokaacvqeaamjsyaawxusa
aglwmaaqzygaakbcuaaupeoaaedgiaaoricaayfkwaaitmqa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: ashoka
Cipher: nfubxn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: ashoka
Cipher: 113432435211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: ashoka
method variations:
fxntpflcsyulqhxdzqvnciev

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
a s h o k a 
1 3 3 4 5 1 
1 4 2 3 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
133451142321
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: ashoka
Cipher: lseqmb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: ashoka
method variations:
lorxba orxbal rxbalo
xbalor balorx alorxb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: ashoka

all 720 cipher variations:
ashoka ashoak ashkoa ashkao ashako ashaok asohka asohak asokha asokah asoakh
asoahk askoha askoah askhoa askhao askaho askaoh asaokh asaohk asakoh asakho
asahko asahok ahsoka ahsoak ahskoa ahskao ahsako ahsaok ahoska ahosak ahoksa
ahokas ahoaks ahoask ahkosa ahkoas ahksoa ahksao ahkaso ahkaos ahaoks ahaosk
ahakos ahakso ahasko ahasok aohska aohsak aohksa aohkas aohaks aohask aoshka
aoshak aoskha aoskah aosakh aosahk aoksha aoksah aokhsa aokhas aokahs aokash
aoaskh aoashk aoaksh aoakhs aoahks aoahsk akhosa akhoas akhsoa akhsao akhaso
akhaos akohsa akohas akosha akosah akoash akoahs aksoha aksoah akshoa akshao
aksaho aksaoh akaosh akaohs akasoh akasho akahso akahos aahoks aahosk aahkos
aahkso aahsko aahsok aaohks aaohsk aaokhs aaoksh aaoskh aaoshk aakohs aakosh
aakhos aakhso aaksho aaksoh aasokh aasohk aaskoh aaskho aashko aashok sahoka
sahoak sahkoa sahkao sahako sahaok saohka saohak saokha saokah saoakh saoahk
sakoha sakoah sakhoa sakhao sakaho sakaoh saaokh saaohk saakoh saakho saahko
saahok shaoka shaoak shakoa shakao shaako shaaok shoaka shoaak shokaa shokaa
shoaka shoaak shkoaa shkoaa shkaoa shkaao shkaao shkaoa shaoka shaoak shakoa
shakao shaako shaaok sohaka sohaak sohkaa sohkaa sohaka sohaak soahka soahak
soakha soakah soaakh soaahk sokaha sokaah sokhaa sokhaa sokaha sokaah soaakh
soaahk soakah soakha soahka soahak skhoaa skhoaa skhaoa skhaao skhaao skhaoa
skohaa skohaa skoaha skoaah skoaah skoaha skaoha skaoah skahoa skahao skaaho
skaaoh skaoah skaoha skaaoh skaaho skahao skahoa sahoka sahoak sahkoa sahkao
sahako sahaok saohka saohak saokha saokah saoakh saoahk sakoha sakoah sakhoa
sakhao sakaho sakaoh saaokh saaohk saakoh saakho saahko saahok hsaoka hsaoak
hsakoa hsakao hsaako hsaaok hsoaka hsoaak hsokaa hsokaa hsoaka hsoaak hskoaa
hskoaa hskaoa hskaao hskaao hskaoa hsaoka hsaoak hsakoa hsakao hsaako hsaaok
hasoka hasoak haskoa haskao hasako hasaok haoska haosak haoksa haokas haoaks
haoask hakosa hakoas haksoa haksao hakaso hakaos haaoks haaosk haakos haakso
haasko haasok hoaska hoasak hoaksa hoakas hoaaks hoaask hosaka hosaak hoskaa
hoskaa hosaka hosaak hoksaa hoksaa hokasa hokaas hokaas hokasa hoaska hoasak
hoaksa hoakas hoaaks hoaask hkaosa hkaoas hkasoa hkasao hkaaso hkaaos hkoasa
hkoaas hkosaa hkosaa hkoasa hkoaas hksoaa hksoaa hksaoa hksaao hksaao hksaoa
hkaosa hkaoas hkasoa hkasao hkaaso hkaaos haaoks haaosk haakos haakso haasko
haasok haoaks haoask haokas haoksa haoska haosak hakoas hakosa hakaos hakaso
haksao haksoa hasoka hasoak haskoa haskao hasako hasaok oshaka oshaak oshkaa
oshkaa oshaka oshaak osahka osahak osakha osakah osaakh osaahk oskaha oskaah
oskhaa oskhaa oskaha oskaah osaakh osaahk osakah osakha osahka osahak ohsaka
ohsaak ohskaa ohskaa ohsaka ohsaak ohaska ohasak ohaksa ohakas ohaaks ohaask
ohkasa ohkaas ohksaa ohksaa ohkasa ohkaas ohaaks ohaask ohakas ohaksa ohaska
ohasak oahska oahsak oahksa oahkas oahaks oahask oashka oashak oaskha oaskah
oasakh oasahk oaksha oaksah oakhsa oakhas oakahs oakash oaaskh oaashk oaaksh
oaakhs oaahks oaahsk okhasa okhaas okhsaa okhsaa okhasa okhaas okahsa okahas
okasha okasah okaash okaahs oksaha oksaah okshaa okshaa oksaha oksaah okaash
okaahs okasah okasha okahsa okahas oahaks oahask oahkas oahksa oahska oahsak
oaahks oaahsk oaakhs oaaksh oaaskh oaashk oakahs oakash oakhas oakhsa oaksha
oaksah oasakh oasahk oaskah oaskha oashka oashak kshoaa kshoaa kshaoa kshaao
kshaao kshaoa ksohaa ksohaa ksoaha ksoaah ksoaah ksoaha ksaoha ksaoah ksahoa
ksahao ksaaho ksaaoh ksaoah ksaoha ksaaoh ksaaho ksahao ksahoa khsoaa khsoaa
khsaoa khsaao khsaao khsaoa khosaa khosaa khoasa khoaas khoaas khoasa khaosa
khaoas khasoa khasao khaaso khaaos khaoas khaosa khaaos khaaso khasao khasoa
kohsaa kohsaa kohasa kohaas kohaas kohasa koshaa koshaa kosaha kosaah kosaah
kosaha koasha koasah koahsa koahas koaahs koaash koasah koasha koaash koaahs
koahas koahsa kahosa kahoas kahsoa kahsao kahaso kahaos kaohsa kaohas kaosha
kaosah kaoash kaoahs kasoha kasoah kashoa kashao kasaho kasaoh kaaosh kaaohs
kaasoh kaasho kaahso kaahos kahoas kahosa kahaos kahaso kahsao kahsoa kaohas
kaohsa kaoahs kaoash kaosah kaosha kaaohs kaaosh kaahos kaahso kaasho kaasoh
kasoah kasoha kasaoh kasaho kashao kashoa ashoka ashoak ashkoa ashkao ashako
ashaok asohka asohak asokha asokah asoakh asoahk askoha askoah askhoa askhao
askaho askaoh asaokh asaohk asakoh asakho asahko asahok ahsoka ahsoak ahskoa
ahskao ahsako ahsaok ahoska ahosak ahoksa ahokas ahoaks ahoask ahkosa ahkoas
ahksoa ahksao ahkaso ahkaos ahaoks ahaosk ahakos ahakso ahasko ahasok aohska
aohsak aohksa aohkas aohaks aohask aoshka aoshak aoskha aoskah aosakh aosahk
aoksha aoksah aokhsa aokhas aokahs aokash aoaskh aoashk aoaksh aoakhs aoahks
aoahsk akhosa akhoas akhsoa akhsao akhaso akhaos akohsa akohas akosha akosah
akoash akoahs aksoha aksoah akshoa akshao aksaho aksaoh akaosh akaohs akasoh
akasho akahso akahos aahoks aahosk aahkos aahkso aahsko aahsok aaohks aaohsk
aaokhs aaoksh aaoskh aaoshk aakohs aakosh aakhos aakhso aaksho aaksoh aasokh
aasohk aaskoh aaskho aashko aashok

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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