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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: arbors
cipher variations:
bscpst ctdqtu dueruv evfsvw fwgtwx
gxhuxy hyivyz izjwza jakxab kblybc
lcmzcd mdnade neobef ofpcfg pgqdgh
qhrehi risfij sjtgjk tkuhkl ulvilm
vmwjmn wnxkno xoylop ypzmpq zqanqr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: arbors
Cipher: ziylih

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: arbors
Cipher: AAAAA BAAAA AAAAB ABBAB BAAAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: arbors
cipher variations:
bscpstbaeradbigtinbqivqxbykxyhbgmzgrbwqdwlbesfev
bmuhmfbuwjupbcylczbkankjctdqtucbfsbecjhujocrjwry
czlyzichnahscxrexmcftgfwcnvingcvxkvqcdzmdaclbolk
dueruvdcgtcfdkivkpdskxszdamzajdiobitdysfyndguhgx
dowjohdwylwrdeanebdmcpmlevfsvwedhudgeljwlqetlyta
ebnabkejpcjueztgzoehvihyepxkpiexzmxsefbofcendqnm
fwgtwxfeivehfmkxmrfumzubfcobclfkqdkvfauhapfiwjiz
fqylqjfyanytfgcpgdfoerongxhuxygfjwfignlynsgvnavc
gdpcdmglrelwgbvibqgjxkjagrzmrkgzbozughdqhegpfspo
hyivyzhgkxgjhomzothwobwdheqdenhmsfmxhcwjcrhkylkb
hsanslhacpavhierifhqgtqpizjwzaihlyhkipnapuixpcxe
ifrefointgnyidxkdsilzmlcitbotmibdqbwijfsjgirhurq
jakxabjimziljqobqvjyqdyfjgsfgpjouhozjeyletjmanmd
jucpunjcercxjkgtkhjsivsrkblybckjnajmkrpcrwkzrezg
khtghqkpvipakfzmfuknbonekvdqvokdfsdyklhuliktjwts
lcmzcdlkobknlsqdsxlasfahliuhirlqwjqblgangvlocpof
lwerwplegtezlmivmjlukxutmdnademlpclomtretymbtgbi
mjvijsmrxkrcmhbohwmpdqpgmxfsxqmfhufamnjwnkmvlyvu
neobefnmqdmpnusfuzncuhcjnkwjktnsylsdnicpixnqerqh
nygtyrngivgbnokxolnwmzwvofpcfgonrenqovtgvaodvidk
olxkluotzmteojdqjyorfsriozhuzsohjwhcoplypmoxnaxw
pgqdghposforpwuhwbpewjelpmylmvpuanufpkerkzpsgtsj
paivatpikxidpqmzqnpyobyxqhrehiqptgpsqxvixcqfxkfm
qnzmnwqvbovgqlfslaqthutkqbjwbuqjlyjeqrnaroqzpczy
risfijrquhqtrywjydrgylgnroanoxrwcpwhrmgtmbruivul
rckxcvrkmzkfrsobspraqdazsjtgjksrviruszxkzeshzmho
spbopysxdqxisnhuncsvjwvmsdlydwslnalgstpctqsbreba
tkuhkltswjsvtaylaftianiptqcpqztyeryjtoivodtwkxwn
temzextmobmhtuqdurtcsfcbulvilmutxktwubzmbgujbojq
urdqrauzfszkupjwpeuxlyxoufnafyunpcniuvrevsudtgdc
vmwjmnvuyluxvcanchvkcpkrvsersbvagtalvqkxqfvymzyp
vgobgzvoqdojvwsfwtveuhedwnxknowvzmvywdbodiwldqls
wtfstcwbhubmwrlyrgwznazqwhpchawprepkwxtgxuwfvife
xoylopxwanwzxecpejxmermtxugtudxcivcnxsmzshxaobar
xiqdibxqsfqlxyuhyvxgwjgfypzmpqyxboxayfdqfkynfsnu
yvhuveydjwdoytnatiybpcbsyjrejcyrtgrmyzvizwyhxkhg
zqanqrzycpybzgerglzogtovzwivwfzekxepzuobujzcqdct
zksfkdzsuhsnzawjaxziyliharborsazdqzcahfshmaphupw
axjwxgaflyfqavpcvkadredualtgleatvitoabxkbyajzmji

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: arbors
Cipher: neobef

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: arbors
Cipher: 112421432434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: arbors
method variations:
fwgtwxlbmybcqgrdghvmwimn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
a r b o r s 
1 2 2 4 2 3 
1 4 1 3 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
122423141344
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: arbors
Cipher: frmqlt

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: arbors
method variations:
fiqhod iqhodf qhodfi
hodfiq odfiqh dfiqho

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: arbors

all 720 cipher variations:
arbors arbosr arbros arbrso arbsro arbsor arobrs arobsr arorbs arorsb arosrb
arosbr arrobs arrosb arrbos arrbso arrsbo arrsob arsorb arsobr arsrob arsrbo
arsbro arsbor abrors abrosr abrros abrrso abrsro abrsor aborrs aborsr aborrs
aborsr abosrr abosrr abrors abrosr abrros abrrso abrsro abrsor absorr absorr
absror absrro absrro absror aobrrs aobrsr aobrrs aobrsr aobsrr aobsrr aorbrs
aorbsr aorrbs aorrsb aorsrb aorsbr aorrbs aorrsb aorbrs aorbsr aorsbr aorsrb
aosrrb aosrbr aosrrb aosrbr aosbrr aosbrr arbors arbosr arbros arbrso arbsro
arbsor arobrs arobsr arorbs arorsb arosrb arosbr arrobs arrosb arrbos arrbso
arrsbo arrsob arsorb arsobr arsrob arsrbo arsbro arsbor asborr asborr asbror
asbrro asbrro asbror asobrr asobrr asorbr asorrb asorrb asorbr asrobr asrorb
asrbor asrbro asrrbo asrrob asrorb asrobr asrrob asrrbo asrbro asrbor rabors
rabosr rabros rabrso rabsro rabsor raobrs raobsr raorbs raorsb raosrb raosbr
rarobs rarosb rarbos rarbso rarsbo rarsob rasorb rasobr rasrob rasrbo rasbro
rasbor rbaors rbaosr rbaros rbarso rbasro rbasor rboars rboasr rboras rborsa
rbosra rbosar rbroas rbrosa rbraos rbraso rbrsao rbrsoa rbsora rbsoar rbsroa
rbsrao rbsaro rbsaor robars robasr robras robrsa robsra robsar roabrs roabsr
roarbs roarsb roasrb roasbr rorabs rorasb rorbas rorbsa rorsba rorsab rosarb
rosabr rosrab rosrba rosbra rosbar rrboas rrbosa rrbaos rrbaso rrbsao rrbsoa
rrobas rrobsa rroabs rroasb rrosab rrosba rraobs rraosb rrabos rrabso rrasbo
rrasob rrsoab rrsoba rrsaob rrsabo rrsbao rrsboa rsbora rsboar rsbroa rsbrao
rsbaro rsbaor rsobra rsobar rsorba rsorab rsoarb rsoabr rsroba rsroab rsrboa
rsrbao rsrabo rsraob rsaorb rsaobr rsarob rsarbo rsabro rsabor braors braosr
braros brarso brasro brasor broars broasr broras brorsa brosra brosar brroas
brrosa brraos brraso brrsao brrsoa brsora brsoar brsroa brsrao brsaro brsaor
barors barosr barros barrso barsro barsor baorrs baorsr baorrs baorsr baosrr
baosrr barors barosr barros barrso barsro barsor basorr basorr basror basrro
basrro basror boarrs boarsr boarrs boarsr boasrr boasrr borars borasr borras
borrsa borsra borsar borras borrsa borars borasr borsar borsra bosrra bosrar
bosrra bosrar bosarr bosarr braors braosr braros brarso brasro brasor broars
broasr broras brorsa brosra brosar brroas brrosa brraos brraso brrsao brrsoa
brsora brsoar brsroa brsrao brsaro brsaor bsaorr bsaorr bsaror bsarro bsarro
bsaror bsoarr bsoarr bsorar bsorra bsorra bsorar bsroar bsrora bsraor bsraro
bsrrao bsrroa bsrora bsroar bsrroa bsrrao bsraro bsraor orbars orbasr orbras
orbrsa orbsra orbsar orabrs orabsr orarbs orarsb orasrb orasbr orrabs orrasb
orrbas orrbsa orrsba orrsab orsarb orsabr orsrab orsrba orsbra orsbar obrars
obrasr obrras obrrsa obrsra obrsar obarrs obarsr obarrs obarsr obasrr obasrr
obrars obrasr obrras obrrsa obrsra obrsar obsarr obsarr obsrar obsrra obsrra
obsrar oabrrs oabrsr oabrrs oabrsr oabsrr oabsrr oarbrs oarbsr oarrbs oarrsb
oarsrb oarsbr oarrbs oarrsb oarbrs oarbsr oarsbr oarsrb oasrrb oasrbr oasrrb
oasrbr oasbrr oasbrr orbars orbasr orbras orbrsa orbsra orbsar orabrs orabsr
orarbs orarsb orasrb orasbr orrabs orrasb orrbas orrbsa orrsba orrsab orsarb
orsabr orsrab orsrba orsbra orsbar osbarr osbarr osbrar osbrra osbrra osbrar
osabrr osabrr osarbr osarrb osarrb osarbr osrabr osrarb osrbar osrbra osrrba
osrrab osrarb osrabr osrrab osrrba osrbra osrbar rrboas rrbosa rrbaos rrbaso
rrbsao rrbsoa rrobas rrobsa rroabs rroasb rrosab rrosba rraobs rraosb rrabos
rrabso rrasbo rrasob rrsoab rrsoba rrsaob rrsabo rrsbao rrsboa rbroas rbrosa
rbraos rbraso rbrsao rbrsoa rboras rborsa rboars rboasr rbosar rbosra rbaors
rbaosr rbaros rbarso rbasro rbasor rbsoar rbsora rbsaor rbsaro rbsrao rbsroa
robras robrsa robars robasr robsar robsra rorbas rorbsa rorabs rorasb rorsab
rorsba roarbs roarsb roabrs roabsr roasbr roasrb rosrab rosrba rosarb rosabr
rosbar rosbra rabors rabosr rabros rabrso rabsro rabsor raobrs raobsr raorbs
raorsb raosrb raosbr rarobs rarosb rarbos rarbso rarsbo rarsob rasorb rasobr
rasrob rasrbo rasbro rasbor rsboar rsbora rsbaor rsbaro rsbrao rsbroa rsobar
rsobra rsoabr rsoarb rsorab rsorba rsaobr rsaorb rsabor rsabro rsarbo rsarob
rsroab rsroba rsraob rsrabo rsrbao rsrboa srbora srboar srbroa srbrao srbaro
srbaor srobra srobar srorba srorab sroarb sroabr srroba srroab srrboa srrbao
srrabo srraob sraorb sraobr srarob srarbo srabro srabor sbrora sbroar sbrroa
sbrrao sbraro sbraor sborra sborar sborra sborar sboarr sboarr sbrora sbroar
sbrroa sbrrao sbraro sbraor sbaorr sbaorr sbaror sbarro sbarro sbaror sobrra
sobrar sobrra sobrar sobarr sobarr sorbra sorbar sorrba sorrab sorarb sorabr
sorrba sorrab sorbra sorbar sorabr sorarb soarrb soarbr soarrb soarbr soabrr
soabrr srbora srboar srbroa srbrao srbaro srbaor srobra srobar srorba srorab
sroarb sroabr srroba srroab srrboa srrbao srrabo srraob sraorb sraobr srarob
srarbo srabro srabor saborr saborr sabror sabrro sabrro sabror saobrr saobrr
saorbr saorrb saorrb saorbr sarobr sarorb sarbor sarbro sarrbo sarrob sarorb
sarobr sarrob sarrbo sarbro sarbor

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History of cryptography
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