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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: apopka
cipher variations:
bqpqlb crqrmc dsrsnd etstoe futupf
gvuvqg hwvwrh ixwxsi jyxytj kzyzuk
lazavl mbabwm ncbcxn odcdyo pedezp
qfefaq rgfgbr shghcs tihidt ujijeu
vkjkfv wlklgw xmlmhx ynmniy zonojz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: apopka
Cipher: zklkpz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: apopka
Cipher: AAAAA ABBBA ABBAB ABBBA ABAAB AAAAA

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: apopka
cipher variations:
bqpqlbburufbbytyzbbcvctbbgxgnbbkzkhbbsdsvbbwfwpb
bahajbbejedbbilixbbmnmrbcrqrmccvsvgcczuzaccdwduc
chyhocclalicctetwccxgxqccbibkccfkfeccjmjyccnonsc
dsrsnddwtwhddavabddexevddizipddmbmjddufuxddyhyrd
dcjclddglgfddknkzddopotdetstoeexuxieebwbceefyfwe
ejajqeencnkeevgvyeezizseedkdmeehmhgeelolaeepqpue
futupffyvyjffcxcdffgzgxffkbkrffodolffwhwzffajatf
felenffinihffmpmbffqrqvfgvuvqggzwzkggdydegghahyg
glclsggpepmggxixaggbkbuggfmfoggjojiggnqncggrsrwg
hwvwrhhaxalhhezefhhibizhhmdmthhqfqnhhyjybhhclcvh
hgngphhkpkjhhorodhhstsxhixwxsiibybmiifafgiijcjai
inenuiirgroiizkzciidmdwiihohqiilqlkiipspeiitutyi
jyxytjjczcnjjgbghjjkdkbjjofovjjshspjjaladjjenexj
jipirjjmrmljjqtqfjjuvuzjkzyzukkdadokkhchikklelck
kpgpwkktitqkkbmbekkfofykkjqjskknsnmkkrurgkkvwvak
lazavllebepllidijllmfmdllqhqxllujurllcncfllgpgzl
lkrktllotonllsvshllwxwblmbabwmmfcfqmmjejkmmngnem
mrirymmvkvsmmdodgmmhqhammlslummpupommtwtimmxyxcm
ncbcxnngdgrnnkfklnnohofnnsjsznnwlwtnnepehnniribn
nmtmvnnqvqpnnuxujnnyzydnodcdyoohehsoolglmoopipgo
otktaooxmxuoofqfioojsjcoonunwoorwrqoovyvkoozazeo
pedezppifitppmhmnppqjqhppulubppynyvppgrgjppktkdp
povoxppsxsrppwzwlppabafpqfefaqqjgjuqqninoqqrkriq
qvmvcqqzozwqqhshkqqluleqqpwpyqqtytsqqxaxmqqbcbgq
rgfgbrrkhkvrrojoprrslsjrrwnwdrrapaxrritilrrmvmfr
rqxqzrruzutrrybynrrcdchrshghcsslilwsspkpqsstmtks
sxoxessbqbyssjujmssnwngssryrassvavusszczossdedis
tihidttmjmxttqlqrttunulttypyfttcrczttkvknttoxoht
tszsbttwbwvttadapttefejtujijeuunknyuurmrsuuvovmu
uzqzguudsdauulwlouupypiuutatcuuxcxwuubebquufgfku
vkjkfvvolozvvsnstvvwpwnvvarahvvetebvvmxmpvvqzqjv
vubudvvydyxvvcfcrvvghglvwlklgwwpmpawwtotuwwxqxow
wbsbiwwfufcwwnynqwwrarkwwvcvewwzezywwdgdswwhihmw
xmlmhxxqnqbxxupuvxxyrypxxctcjxxgvgdxxozorxxsbslx
xwdwfxxafazxxehetxxijinxynmniyyrorcyyvqvwyyzszqy
ydudkyyhwheyypapsyytctmyyxexgyybgbayyfifuyyjkjoy
zonojzzspsdzzwrwxzzatarzzevelzzixifzzqbqtzzudunz
zyfyhzzchcbzzgjgvzzklkpzapopkaatqteaaxsxyaabubsa
afwfmaajyjgaarcruaavevoaazgziaadidcaahkhwaalmlqa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: apopka
Cipher: ncbcxn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: apopka
Cipher: 115343535211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: apopka
method variations:
futupflzyzulqedezqvkikev

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
a p o p k a 
1 5 4 5 5 1 
1 3 3 3 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
154551133321
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: apopka
Cipher: vyelnb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: apopka
method variations:
vsxxba sxxbav xxbavs
xbavsx bavsxx avsxxb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: apopka

all 720 cipher variations:
apopka apopak apokpa apokap apoakp apoapk appoka appoak appkoa appkao appako
appaok apkpoa apkpao apkopa apkoap apkaop apkapo apapko apapok apakpo apakop
apaokp apaopk aoppka aoppak aopkpa aopkap aopakp aopapk aoppka aoppak aopkpa
aopkap aopakp aopapk aokppa aokpap aokppa aokpap aokapp aokapp aoapkp aoappk
aoakpp aoakpp aoapkp aoappk apopka apopak apokpa apokap apoakp apoapk appoka
appoak appkoa appkao appako appaok apkpoa apkpao apkopa apkoap apkaop apkapo
apapko apapok apakpo apakop apaokp apaopk akoppa akopap akoppa akopap akoapp
akoapp akpopa akpoap akppoa akppao akpapo akpaop akppoa akppao akpopa akpoap
akpaop akpapo akappo akapop akappo akapop akaopp akaopp aaopkp aaoppk aaokpp
aaokpp aaopkp aaoppk aapokp aapopk aapkop aapkpo aappko aappok aakpop aakppo
aakopp aakopp aakpop aakppo aappko aappok aapkpo aapkop aapokp aapopk paopka
paopak paokpa paokap paoakp paoapk papoka papoak papkoa papkao papako papaok
pakpoa pakpao pakopa pakoap pakaop pakapo paapko paapok paakpo paakop paaokp
paaopk poapka poapak poakpa poakap poaakp poaapk popaka popaak popkaa popkaa
popaka popaak pokpaa pokpaa pokapa pokaap pokaap pokapa poapka poapak poakpa
poakap poaakp poaapk ppoaka ppoaak ppokaa ppokaa ppoaka ppoaak ppaoka ppaoak
ppakoa ppakao ppaako ppaaok ppkaoa ppkaao ppkoaa ppkoaa ppkaoa ppkaao ppaako
ppaaok ppakao ppakoa ppaoka ppaoak pkopaa pkopaa pkoapa pkoaap pkoaap pkoapa
pkpoaa pkpoaa pkpaoa pkpaao pkpaao pkpaoa pkapoa pkapao pkaopa pkaoap pkaaop
pkaapo pkapao pkapoa pkaapo pkaaop pkaoap pkaopa paopka paopak paokpa paokap
paoakp paoapk papoka papoak papkoa papkao papako papaok pakpoa pakpao pakopa
pakoap pakaop pakapo paapko paapok paakpo paakop paaokp paaopk opapka opapak
opakpa opakap opaakp opaapk oppaka oppaak oppkaa oppkaa oppaka oppaak opkpaa
opkpaa opkapa opkaap opkaap opkapa opapka opapak opakpa opakap opaakp opaapk
oappka oappak oapkpa oapkap oapakp oapapk oappka oappak oapkpa oapkap oapakp
oapapk oakppa oakpap oakppa oakpap oakapp oakapp oaapkp oaappk oaakpp oaakpp
oaapkp oaappk opapka opapak opakpa opakap opaakp opaapk oppaka oppaak oppkaa
oppkaa oppaka oppaak opkpaa opkpaa opkapa opkaap opkaap opkapa opapka opapak
opakpa opakap opaakp opaapk okappa okapap okappa okapap okaapp okaapp okpapa
okpaap okppaa okppaa okpapa okpaap okppaa okppaa okpapa okpaap okpaap okpapa
okappa okapap okappa okapap okaapp okaapp oaapkp oaappk oaakpp oaakpp oaapkp
oaappk oapakp oapapk oapkap oapkpa oappka oappak oakpap oakppa oakapp oakapp
oakpap oakppa oappka oappak oapkpa oapkap oapakp oapapk ppoaka ppoaak ppokaa
ppokaa ppoaka ppoaak ppaoka ppaoak ppakoa ppakao ppaako ppaaok ppkaoa ppkaao
ppkoaa ppkoaa ppkaoa ppkaao ppaako ppaaok ppakao ppakoa ppaoka ppaoak popaka
popaak popkaa popkaa popaka popaak poapka poapak poakpa poakap poaakp poaapk
pokapa pokaap pokpaa pokpaa pokapa pokaap poaakp poaapk poakap poakpa poapka
poapak paopka paopak paokpa paokap paoakp paoapk papoka papoak papkoa papkao
papako papaok pakpoa pakpao pakopa pakoap pakaop pakapo paapko paapok paakpo
paakop paaokp paaopk pkoapa pkoaap pkopaa pkopaa pkoapa pkoaap pkaopa pkaoap
pkapoa pkapao pkaapo pkaaop pkpaoa pkpaao pkpoaa pkpoaa pkpaoa pkpaao pkaapo
pkaaop pkapao pkapoa pkaopa pkaoap paoakp paoapk paokap paokpa paopka paopak
paaokp paaopk paakop paakpo paapko paapok pakaop pakapo pakoap pakopa pakpoa
pakpao papako papaok papkao papkoa papoka papoak kpopaa kpopaa kpoapa kpoaap
kpoaap kpoapa kppoaa kppoaa kppaoa kppaao kppaao kppaoa kpapoa kpapao kpaopa
kpaoap kpaaop kpaapo kpapao kpapoa kpaapo kpaaop kpaoap kpaopa koppaa koppaa
kopapa kopaap kopaap kopapa koppaa koppaa kopapa kopaap kopaap kopapa koappa
koapap koappa koapap koaapp koaapp koapap koappa koaapp koaapp koapap koappa
kpopaa kpopaa kpoapa kpoaap kpoaap kpoapa kppoaa kppoaa kppaoa kppaao kppaao
kppaoa kpapoa kpapao kpaopa kpaoap kpaaop kpaapo kpapao kpapoa kpaapo kpaaop
kpaoap kpaopa kaoppa kaopap kaoppa kaopap kaoapp kaoapp kapopa kapoap kappoa
kappao kapapo kapaop kappoa kappao kapopa kapoap kapaop kapapo kaappo kaapop
kaappo kaapop kaaopp kaaopp kaopap kaoppa kaoapp kaoapp kaopap kaoppa kapoap
kapopa kapaop kapapo kappao kappoa kaapop kaappo kaaopp kaaopp kaapop kaappo
kappao kappoa kapapo kapaop kapoap kapopa apopka apopak apokpa apokap apoakp
apoapk appoka appoak appkoa appkao appako appaok apkpoa apkpao apkopa apkoap
apkaop apkapo apapko apapok apakpo apakop apaokp apaopk aoppka aoppak aopkpa
aopkap aopakp aopapk aoppka aoppak aopkpa aopkap aopakp aopapk aokppa aokpap
aokppa aokpap aokapp aokapp aoapkp aoappk aoakpp aoakpp aoapkp aoappk apopka
apopak apokpa apokap apoakp apoapk appoka appoak appkoa appkao appako appaok
apkpoa apkpao apkopa apkoap apkaop apkapo apapko apapok apakpo apakop apaokp
apaopk akoppa akopap akoppa akopap akoapp akoapp akpopa akpoap akppoa akppao
akpapo akpaop akppoa akppao akpopa akpoap akpaop akpapo akappo akapop akappo
akapop akaopp akaopp aaopkp aaoppk aaokpp aaokpp aaopkp aaoppk aapokp aapopk
aapkop aapkpo aappko aappok aakpop aakppo aakopp aakopp aakpop aakppo aappko
aappok aapkpo aapkop aapokp aapopk

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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