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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: allwyn
cipher variations:
bmmxzo cnnyap doozbq eppacr fqqbds
grrcet hssdfu ittegv juufhw kvvgix
lwwhjy mxxikz nyyjla ozzkmb paalnc
qbbmod rccnpe sddoqf teeprg uffqsh
vggrti whhsuj xiitvk yjjuwl zkkvxm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: allwyn
Cipher: zoodbm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: allwyn
Cipher: AAAAA ABABA ABABA BABAA BABBA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: allwyn
cipher variations:
bmmxzobiipvobeehrobaaznobwwrjobssjfobkktxobgglto
bccdpobyyvlobuunhobqqfdocnnyapcjjqwpcffispcbbaop
cxxskpcttkgpclluypchhmupcddeqpczzwmpcvvoipcrrgep
doozbqdkkrxqdggjtqdccbpqdyytlqduulhqdmmvzqdiinvq
deefrqdaaxnqdwwpjqdsshfqeppacrellsyrehhkureddcqr
ezzumrevvmirennwarejjowreffgsrebbyorexxqkrettigr
fqqbdsfmmtzsfiilvsfeedrsfaavnsfwwnjsfooxbsfkkpxs
fgghtsfcczpsfyyrlsfuujhsgrrcetgnnuatgjjmwtgffest
gbbwotgxxoktgppyctgllqytghhiutgddaqtgzzsmtgvvkit
hssdfuhoovbuhkknxuhggftuhccxpuhyypluhqqzduhmmrzu
hiijvuheebruhaatnuhwwljuittegvippwcvilloyvihhguv
iddyqvizzqmvirraevinnsavijjkwviffcsvibbuovixxmkv
juufhwjqqxdwjmmpzwjiihvwjeezrwjaarnwjssbfwjootbw
jkklxwjggdtwjccvpwjyynlwkvvgixkrryexknnqaxkjjiwx
kffasxkbbsoxkttcgxkppucxkllmyxkhheuxkddwqxkzzomx
lwwhjylsszfyloorbylkkjxylggbtylcctpyluudhylqqvdy
lmmnzyliifvyleexrylaapnymxxikzmttagzmppsczmllkyz
mhhcuzmdduqzmvveizmrrwezmnnoazmjjgwzmffyszmbbqoz
nyyjlanuubhanqqtdanmmlzaniidvaneevranwwfjanssxfa
noopbankkhxanggztanccrpaozzkmbovvciborruebonnmab
ojjewboffwsboxxgkbottygboppqcbolliybohhauboddsqb
paalncpwwdjcpssvfcpoonbcpkkfxcpggxtcpyyhlcpuuzhc
pqqrdcpmmjzcpiibvcpeetrcqbbmodqxxekdqttwgdqppocd
qllgydqhhyudqzzimdqvvaidqrrsedqnnkadqjjcwdqffusd
rccnperyyfleruuxherqqpdermmhzeriizveraajnerwwbje
rsstferoolberkkdxerggvtesddoqfszzgmfsvvyifsrrqef
snniafsjjawfsbbkofsxxckfsttugfsppmcfslleyfshhwuf
teeprgtaahngtwwzjgtssrfgtoojbgtkkbxgtcclpgtyydlg
tuuvhgtqqndgtmmfzgtiixvguffqshubbiohuxxakhuttsgh
uppkchullcyhuddmqhuzzemhuvvwihurroehunngahujjywh
vggrtivccjpivyyblivuuthivqqldivmmdziveenrivaafni
vwwxjivsspfivoohbivkkzxiwhhsujwddkqjwzzcmjwvvuij
wrrmejwnneajwffosjwbbgojwxxykjwttqgjwppicjwllayj
xiitvkxeelrkxaadnkxwwvjkxssnfkxoofbkxggptkxcchpk
xyyzlkxuurhkxqqjdkxmmbzkyjjuwlyffmslybbeolyxxwkl
yttoglyppgclyhhqulyddiqlyzzamlyvvsilyrrkelynncal
zkkvxmzggntmzccfpmzyyxlmzuuphmzqqhdmziirvmzeejrm
zaabnmzwwtjmzsslfmzoodbmallwynahhounaddgqnazzymn
avvqinarrienajjswnaffksnabbconaxxuknattmgnappecn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: allwyn
Cipher: nyyjla

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: allwyn
Cipher: 111313254533

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: allwyn
method variations:
fqqbdslvvgixqaamocvffrth

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
a l l w y n 
1 1 1 2 4 3 
1 3 3 5 5 3 
They are then read out in rows:
111243133553
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: allwyn
Cipher: afolxp

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: allwyn
method variations:
achupc chupca hupcac
upcach pcachu cachup

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: allwyn

all 720 cipher variations:
allwyn allwny allywn allynw allnyw allnwy alwlyn alwlny alwyln alwynl alwnyl
alwnly alywln alywnl alylwn alylnw alynlw alynwl alnwyl alnwly alnywl alnylw
alnlyw alnlwy allwyn allwny allywn allynw allnyw allnwy alwlyn alwlny alwyln
alwynl alwnyl alwnly alywln alywnl alylwn alylnw alynlw alynwl alnwyl alnwly
alnywl alnylw alnlyw alnlwy awllyn awllny awlyln awlynl awlnyl awlnly awllyn
awllny awlyln awlynl awlnyl awlnly awylln awylnl awylln awylnl awynll awynll
awnlyl awnlly awnyll awnyll awnlyl awnlly aylwln aylwnl ayllwn ayllnw aylnlw
aylnwl aywlln aywlnl aywlln aywlnl aywnll aywnll aylwln aylwnl ayllwn ayllnw
aylnlw aylnwl aynwll aynwll aynlwl aynllw aynllw aynlwl anlwyl anlwly anlywl
anlylw anllyw anllwy anwlyl anwlly anwyll anwyll anwlyl anwlly anywll anywll
anylwl anyllw anyllw anylwl anlwyl anlwly anlywl anlylw anllyw anllwy lalwyn
lalwny lalywn lalynw lalnyw lalnwy lawlyn lawlny lawyln lawynl lawnyl lawnly
laywln laywnl laylwn laylnw laynlw laynwl lanwyl lanwly lanywl lanylw lanlyw
lanlwy llawyn llawny llaywn llaynw llanyw llanwy llwayn llwany llwyan llwyna
llwnya llwnay llywan llywna llyawn llyanw llynaw llynwa llnwya llnway llnywa
llnyaw llnayw llnawy lwlayn lwlany lwlyan lwlyna lwlnya lwlnay lwalyn lwalny
lwayln lwaynl lwanyl lwanly lwyaln lwyanl lwylan lwylna lwynla lwynal lwnayl
lwnaly lwnyal lwnyla lwnlya lwnlay lylwan lylwna lylawn lylanw lylnaw lylnwa
lywlan lywlna lywaln lywanl lywnal lywnla lyawln lyawnl lyalwn lyalnw lyanlw
lyanwl lynwal lynwla lynawl lynalw lynlaw lynlwa lnlwya lnlway lnlywa lnlyaw
lnlayw lnlawy lnwlya lnwlay lnwyla lnwyal lnwayl lnwaly lnywla lnywal lnylwa
lnylaw lnyalw lnyawl lnawyl lnawly lnaywl lnaylw lnalyw lnalwy llawyn llawny
llaywn llaynw llanyw llanwy llwayn llwany llwyan llwyna llwnya llwnay llywan
llywna llyawn llyanw llynaw llynwa llnwya llnway llnywa llnyaw llnayw llnawy
lalwyn lalwny lalywn lalynw lalnyw lalnwy lawlyn lawlny lawyln lawynl lawnyl
lawnly laywln laywnl laylwn laylnw laynlw laynwl lanwyl lanwly lanywl lanylw
lanlyw lanlwy lwalyn lwalny lwayln lwaynl lwanyl lwanly lwlayn lwlany lwlyan
lwlyna lwlnya lwlnay lwylan lwylna lwyaln lwyanl lwynal lwynla lwnlya lwnlay
lwnyla lwnyal lwnayl lwnaly lyawln lyawnl lyalwn lyalnw lyanlw lyanwl lywaln
lywanl lywlan lywlna lywnla lywnal lylwan lylwna lylawn lylanw lylnaw lylnwa
lynwla lynwal lynlwa lynlaw lynalw lynawl lnawyl lnawly lnaywl lnaylw lnalyw
lnalwy lnwayl lnwaly lnwyal lnwyla lnwlya lnwlay lnywal lnywla lnyawl lnyalw
lnylaw lnylwa lnlwya lnlway lnlywa lnlyaw lnlayw lnlawy wllayn wllany wllyan
wllyna wllnya wllnay wlalyn wlalny wlayln wlaynl wlanyl wlanly wlyaln wlyanl
wlylan wlylna wlynla wlynal wlnayl wlnaly wlnyal wlnyla wlnlya wlnlay wllayn
wllany wllyan wllyna wllnya wllnay wlalyn wlalny wlayln wlaynl wlanyl wlanly
wlyaln wlyanl wlylan wlylna wlynla wlynal wlnayl wlnaly wlnyal wlnyla wlnlya
wlnlay wallyn wallny walyln walynl walnyl walnly wallyn wallny walyln walynl
walnyl walnly waylln waylnl waylln waylnl waynll waynll wanlyl wanlly wanyll
wanyll wanlyl wanlly wylaln wylanl wyllan wyllna wylnla wylnal wyalln wyalnl
wyalln wyalnl wyanll wyanll wylaln wylanl wyllan wyllna wylnla wylnal wynall
wynall wynlal wynlla wynlla wynlal wnlayl wnlaly wnlyal wnlyla wnllya wnllay
wnalyl wnally wnayll wnayll wnalyl wnally wnyall wnyall wnylal wnylla wnylla
wnylal wnlayl wnlaly wnlyal wnlyla wnllya wnllay yllwan yllwna yllawn yllanw
yllnaw yllnwa ylwlan ylwlna ylwaln ylwanl ylwnal ylwnla ylawln ylawnl ylalwn
ylalnw ylanlw ylanwl ylnwal ylnwla ylnawl ylnalw ylnlaw ylnlwa yllwan yllwna
yllawn yllanw yllnaw yllnwa ylwlan ylwlna ylwaln ylwanl ylwnal ylwnla ylawln
ylawnl ylalwn ylalnw ylanlw ylanwl ylnwal ylnwla ylnawl ylnalw ylnlaw ylnlwa
ywllan ywllna ywlaln ywlanl ywlnal ywlnla ywllan ywllna ywlaln ywlanl ywlnal
ywlnla ywalln ywalnl ywalln ywalnl ywanll ywanll ywnlal ywnlla ywnall ywnall
ywnlal ywnlla yalwln yalwnl yallwn yallnw yalnlw yalnwl yawlln yawlnl yawlln
yawlnl yawnll yawnll yalwln yalwnl yallwn yallnw yalnlw yalnwl yanwll yanwll
yanlwl yanllw yanllw yanlwl ynlwal ynlwla ynlawl ynlalw ynllaw ynllwa ynwlal
ynwlla ynwall ynwall ynwlal ynwlla ynawll ynawll ynalwl ynallw ynallw ynalwl
ynlwal ynlwla ynlawl ynlalw ynllaw ynllwa nllwya nllway nllywa nllyaw nllayw
nllawy nlwlya nlwlay nlwyla nlwyal nlwayl nlwaly nlywla nlywal nlylwa nlylaw
nlyalw nlyawl nlawyl nlawly nlaywl nlaylw nlalyw nlalwy nllwya nllway nllywa
nllyaw nllayw nllawy nlwlya nlwlay nlwyla nlwyal nlwayl nlwaly nlywla nlywal
nlylwa nlylaw nlyalw nlyawl nlawyl nlawly nlaywl nlaylw nlalyw nlalwy nwllya
nwllay nwlyla nwlyal nwlayl nwlaly nwllya nwllay nwlyla nwlyal nwlayl nwlaly
nwylla nwylal nwylla nwylal nwyall nwyall nwalyl nwally nwayll nwayll nwalyl
nwally nylwla nylwal nyllwa nyllaw nylalw nylawl nywlla nywlal nywlla nywlal
nywall nywall nylwla nylwal nyllwa nyllaw nylalw nylawl nyawll nyawll nyalwl
nyallw nyallw nyalwl nalwyl nalwly nalywl nalylw nallyw nallwy nawlyl nawlly
nawyll nawyll nawlyl nawlly naywll naywll naylwl nayllw nayllw naylwl nalwyl
nalwly nalywl nalylw nallyw nallwy

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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