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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: akeley
cipher variations:
blfmfz cmgnga dnhohb eoipic fpjqjd
gqkrke hrlslf ismtmg jtnunh kuovoi
lvpwpj mwqxqk nxryrl oyszsm pztatn
qaubuo rbvcvp scwdwq tdxexr ueyfys
vfzgzt wgahau xhbibv yicjcw zjdkdx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: akeley
Cipher: zpvovb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: akeley
Cipher: AAAAA ABAAB AABAA ABABA AABAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: akeley
cipher variations:
blfmfzbfninvbzvevrbtdadnbnlwljbhtstfbvjkjxbprgrt
bjzczpbdhyhlbxpuphbrxqxdcmgngacgojowcawfwscuebeo
comxmkciutugcwklkycqshsuckadaqceizimcyqvqicsyrye
dnhohbdhpkpxdbxgxtdvfcfpdpnynldjvuvhdxlmlzdrtitv
dlbebrdfjajndzrwrjdtzszfeoipiceiqlqyecyhyuewgdgq
eqozomekwvwieymnmaesujuwemcfcsegkbkoeasxskeuatag
fpjqjdfjrmrzfdzizvfxhehrfrpapnflxwxjfznonbftvkvx
fndgdtfhlclpfbtytlfvbubhgqkrkegksnsageajawgyifis
gsqbqogmyxykgaopocguwlwygoeheugimdmqgcuzumgwcvci
hrlslfhltotbhfbkbxhzjgjthtrcrphnzyzlhbpqpdhvxmxz
hpfifvhjnenrhdvavnhxdwdjismtmgimupucigclcyiakhku
iusdsqioazamicqrqeiwynyaiqgjgwikofosiewbwoiyexek
jtnunhjnvqvdjhdmdzjblilvjvtetrjpbabnjdrsrfjxzozb
jrhkhxjlpgptjfxcxpjzfyflkuovoikowrwekieneakcmjmw
kwufuskqcbcokestsgkyapacksiliykmqhqukgydyqkagzgm
lvpwpjlpxsxfljfofbldnknxlxvgvtlrdcdplftuthlzbqbd
ltjmjzlnrirvlhzezrlbhahnmwqxqkmqytygmkgpgcmeoloy
mywhwumsedeqmguvuimacrcemuknkamosjswmiafasmcibio
nxryrlnrzuzhnlhqhdnfpmpznzxixvntfefrnhvwvjnbdsdf
nvlolbnptktxnjbgbtndjcjpoyszsmosavaiomirieogqnqa
oayjywougfgsoiwxwkocetegowmpmcoquluyokchcuoekdkq
pztatnptbwbjpnjsjfphrorbpbzkzxpvhghtpjxyxlpdfufh
pxnqndprvmvzpldidvpflelrqaubuoqucxckqoktkgqispsc
qcalayqwihiuqkyzymqegvgiqyoroeqswnwaqmejewqgmfms
rbvcvprvdydlrplulhrjtqtdrdbmbzrxjijvrlzaznrfhwhj
rzpspfrtxoxbrnfkfxrhngntscwdwqswezemsqmvmiskurue
secncasykjkwsmabaosgixiksaqtqgsuypycsoglgysiohou
tdxexrtxfafntrnwnjtlvsvftfdodbtzlklxtnbcbpthjyjl
tbrurhtvzqzdtphmhztjpipvueyfysuygbgousoxokumwtwg
ugepecuamlmyuocdcquikzkmucsvsiuwaraeuqiniaukqjqw
vfzgztvzhchpvtpyplvnxuxhvhfqfdvbnmnzvpdedrvjlaln
vdtwtjvxbsbfvrjojbvlrkrxwgahauwaidiqwuqzqmwoyvyi
wigrgewconoawqefeswkmbmoweuxukwyctcgwskpkcwmslsy
xhbibvxbjejrxvrarnxpzwzjxjhshfxdpopbxrfgftxlncnp
xfvyvlxzdudhxtlqldxntmtzyicjcwyckfksywsbsoyqaxak
ykitigyeqpqcysghguymodoqygwzwmyaeveiyumrmeyounua
zjdkdxzdlgltzxtctpzrbyblzljujhzfrqrdzthihvznpepr
zhxaxnzbfwfjzvnsnfzpvovbakeleyaemhmuayuduqasczcm
amkvkiagsrseauijiwaoqfqsaiybyoacgxgkawotogaqwpwc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: akeley
Cipher: nxryrl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: akeley
Cipher: 115251135145

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: akeley
method variations:
fpkqkdlupvpiqzuauovezfzt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
a k e l e y 
1 5 5 1 5 4 
1 2 1 3 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
155154121315
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: akeley
Cipher: veuflv

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: akeley
method variations:
vwaxqe waxqev axqevw
xqevwa qevwax evwaxq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: akeley

all 720 cipher variations:
akeley akelye akeely akeeyl akeyel akeyle akleey akleye akleey akleye aklyee
aklyee akeley akelye akeely akeeyl akeyel akeyle akylee akylee akyele akyeel
akyeel akyele aekley aeklye aekely aekeyl aekyel aekyle aelkey aelkye aeleky
aeleyk aelyek aelyke aeelky aeelyk aeekly aeekyl aeeykl aeeylk aeylek aeylke
aeyelk aeyekl aeykel aeykle alekey alekye aleeky aleeyk aleyek aleyke alkeey
alkeye alkeey alkeye alkyee alkyee alekey alekye aleeky aleeyk aleyek aleyke
alykee alykee alyeke alyeek alyeek alyeke aeelky aeelyk aeekly aeekyl aeeykl
aeeylk aeleky aeleyk aelkey aelkye aelyke aelyek aekley aeklye aekely aekeyl
aekyel aekyle aeylke aeylek aeykle aeykel aeyekl aeyelk ayelek ayelke ayeelk
ayeekl ayekel ayekle ayleek ayleke ayleek ayleke aylkee aylkee ayelek ayelke
ayeelk ayeekl ayekel ayekle ayklee ayklee aykele aykeel aykeel aykele kaeley
kaelye kaeely kaeeyl kaeyel kaeyle kaleey kaleye kaleey kaleye kalyee kalyee
kaeley kaelye kaeely kaeeyl kaeyel kaeyle kaylee kaylee kayele kayeel kayeel
kayele kealey kealye keaely keaeyl keayel keayle kelaey kelaye keleay keleya
kelyea kelyae keelay keelya keealy keeayl keeyal keeyla keylea keylae keyela
keyeal keyael keyale kleaey kleaye kleeay kleeya kleyea kleyae klaeey klaeye
klaeey klaeye klayee klayee kleaey kleaye kleeay kleeya kleyea kleyae klyaee
klyaee klyeae klyeea klyeea klyeae keelay keelya keealy keeayl keeyal keeyla
keleay keleya kelaey kelaye kelyae kelyea kealey kealye keaely keaeyl keayel
keayle keylae keylea keyale keyael keyeal keyela kyelea kyelae kyeela kyeeal
kyeael kyeale kyleea kyleae kyleea kyleae kylaee kylaee kyelea kyelae kyeela
kyeeal kyeael kyeale kyalee kyalee kyaele kyaeel kyaeel kyaele ekaley ekalye
ekaely ekaeyl ekayel ekayle eklaey eklaye ekleay ekleya eklyea eklyae ekelay
ekelya ekealy ekeayl ekeyal ekeyla ekylea ekylae ekyela ekyeal ekyael ekyale
eakley eaklye eakely eakeyl eakyel eakyle ealkey ealkye ealeky ealeyk ealyek
ealyke eaelky eaelyk eaekly eaekyl eaeykl eaeylk eaylek eaylke eayelk eayekl
eaykel eaykle elakey elakye elaeky elaeyk elayek elayke elkaey elkaye elkeay
elkeya elkyea elkyae elekay elekya eleaky eleayk eleyak eleyka elykea elykae
elyeka elyeak elyaek elyake eealky eealyk eeakly eeakyl eeaykl eeaylk eelaky
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eeylka eeylak eeykla eeykal eeyakl eeyalk eyalek eyalke eyaelk eyaekl eyakel
eyakle eylaek eylake eyleak eyleka eylkea eylkae eyelak eyelka eyealk eyeakl
eyekal eyekla eyklea eyklae eykela eykeal eykael eykale lkeaey lkeaye lkeeay
lkeeya lkeyea lkeyae lkaeey lkaeye lkaeey lkaeye lkayee lkayee lkeaey lkeaye
lkeeay lkeeya lkeyea lkeyae lkyaee lkyaee lkyeae lkyeea lkyeea lkyeae lekaey
lekaye lekeay lekeya lekyea lekyae leakey leakye leaeky leaeyk leayek leayke
leeaky leeayk leekay leekya leeyka leeyak leyaek leyake leyeak leyeka leykea
leykae laekey laekye laeeky laeeyk laeyek laeyke lakeey lakeye lakeey lakeye
lakyee lakyee laekey laekye laeeky laeeyk laeyek laeyke laykee laykee layeke
layeek layeek layeke leeaky leeayk leekay leekya leeyka leeyak leaeky leaeyk
leakey leakye leayke leayek lekaey lekaye lekeay lekeya lekyea lekyae leyake
leyaek leykae leykea leyeka leyeak lyeaek lyeake lyeeak lyeeka lyekea lyekae
lyaeek lyaeke lyaeek lyaeke lyakee lyakee lyeaek lyeake lyeeak lyeeka lyekea
lyekae lykaee lykaee lykeae lykeea lykeea lykeae ekelay ekelya ekealy ekeayl
ekeyal ekeyla ekleay ekleya eklaey eklaye eklyae eklyea ekaley ekalye ekaely
ekaeyl ekayel ekayle ekylae ekylea ekyale ekyael ekyeal ekyela eeklay eeklya
eekaly eekayl eekyal eekyla eelkay eelkya eelaky eelayk eelyak eelyka eealky
eealyk eeakly eeakyl eeaykl eeaylk eeylak eeylka eeyalk eeyakl eeykal eeykla
elekay elekya eleaky eleayk eleyak eleyka elkeay elkeya elkaey elkaye elkyae
elkyea elakey elakye elaeky elaeyk elayek elayke elykae elykea elyake elyaek
elyeak elyeka eaelky eaelyk eaekly eaekyl eaeykl eaeylk ealeky ealeyk ealkey
ealkye ealyke ealyek eakley eaklye eakely eakeyl eakyel eakyle eaylke eaylek
eaykle eaykel eayekl eayelk eyelak eyelka eyealk eyeakl eyekal eyekla eyleak
eyleka eylaek eylake eylkae eylkea eyalek eyalke eyaelk eyaekl eyakel eyakle
eyklae eyklea eykale eykael eykeal eykela ykelea ykelae ykeela ykeeal ykeael
ykeale ykleea ykleae ykleea ykleae yklaee yklaee ykelea ykelae ykeela ykeeal
ykeael ykeale ykalee ykalee ykaele ykaeel ykaeel ykaele yeklea yeklae yekela
yekeal yekael yekale yelkea yelkae yeleka yeleak yelaek yelake yeelka yeelak
yeekla yeekal yeeakl yeealk yealek yealke yeaelk yeaekl yeakel yeakle ylekea
ylekae yleeka yleeak yleaek yleake ylkeea ylkeae ylkeea ylkeae ylkaee ylkaee
ylekea ylekae yleeka yleeak yleaek yleake ylakee ylakee ylaeke ylaeek ylaeek
ylaeke yeelka yeelak yeekla yeekal yeeakl yeealk yeleka yeleak yelkea yelkae
yelake yelaek yeklea yeklae yekela yekeal yekael yekale yealke yealek yeakle
yeakel yeaekl yeaelk yaelek yaelke yaeelk yaeekl yaekel yaekle yaleek yaleke
yaleek yaleke yalkee yalkee yaelek yaelke yaeelk yaeekl yaekel yaekle yaklee
yaklee yakele yakeel yakeel yakele

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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