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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: abachi
cipher variations:
bcbdij cdcejk dedfkl efeglm fgfhmn
ghgino hihjop ijikpq jkjlqr klkmrs
lmlnst mnmotu nonpuv opoqvw pqprwx
qrqsxy rsrtyz stsuza tutvab uvuwbc
vwvxcd wxwyde xyxzef yzyafg zazbgh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: abachi
Cipher: zyzxsr

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: abachi
Cipher: AAAAA AAAAB AAAAA AAABA AABBB ABAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: abachi
cipher variations:
bcbdijbebhwzbgblkpbibpyfbkbtmvbmbxalbqbfcrbsbjqh
bubnexbwbrsnbybvgdbabzutcdcejkcfcixachcmlqcjcqzg
clcunwcncybmcrcgdsctckricvcofycxcstoczcwhecbcavu
dedfkldgdjybdidnmrdkdrahdmdvoxdodzcndsdhetdudlsj
dwdpgzdydtupdadxifdcdbwvefeglmehekzcejeonselesbi
enewpyepeadoeteifuevemtkexeqhaezeuvqebeyjgedecxw
fgfhmnfifladfkfpotfmftcjfofxqzfqfbepfufjgvfwfnul
fyfribfafvwrfcfzkhfefdyxghginogjgmbeglgqpugngudk
gpgyragrgcfqgvgkhwgxgovmgzgsjcgbgwxsgdgaligfgezy
hihjophkhncfhmhrqvhohvelhqhzsbhshdgrhwhlixhyhpwn
hahtkdhchxythehbmjhghfazijikpqiliodginisrwipiwfm
iriatcitiehsiximjyiziqxoibiuleidiyzuificnkihigba
jkjlqrjmjpehjojtsxjqjxgnjsjbudjujfitjyjnkzjajryp
jcjvmfjejzavjgjdoljijhcbklkmrsknkqfikpkutykrkyho
ktkcvekvkgjukzkolakbkszqkdkwngkfkabwkhkepmkjkidc
lmlnstlolrgjlqlvuzlslzipluldwflwlhkvlalpmblcltar
lelxohlglbcxlilfqnlkljedmnmotumpmshkmrmwvamtmajq
mvmexgmxmilwmbmqncmdmubsmfmypimhmcdymjmgromlmkfe
nonpuvnqntilnsnxwbnunbkrnwnfyhnynjmxncnrodnenvct
ngnzqjnindeznknhspnmnlgfopoqvworoujmotoyxcovocls
oxogziozoknyodospeofowduohoarkojoefaoloitqonomhg
pqprwxpspvknpupzydpwpdmtpyphajpaplozpeptqfpgpxev
pipbslpkpfgbpmpjurpopnihqrqsxyqtqwloqvqazeqxqenu
qzqibkqbqmpaqfqurgqhqyfwqjqctmqlqghcqnqkvsqpqoji
rsrtyzrurxmprwrbafryrfovrarjclrcrnqbrgrvshrirzgx
rkrdunrmrhidrorlwtrqrpkjstsuzasvsynqsxscbgszsgpw
sbskdmsdsorcshswtisjsahyslsevosnsijespsmxusrsqlk
tutvabtwtzortytdchtathqxtctlentetpsdtitxujtktbiz
tmtfwptotjkftqtnyvtstrmluvuwbcuxuapsuzuediubuiry
udumfoufuqteujuyvkulucjaunugxqupuklguruozwutusnm
vwvxcdvyvbqtvavfejvcvjszvevngpvgvrufvkvzwlvmvdkb
vovhyrvqvlmhvsvpaxvuvtonwxwydewzwcruwbwgfkwdwkta
wfwohqwhwsvgwlwaxmwnwelcwpwizswrwmniwtwqbywvwupo
xyxzefxaxdsvxcxhglxexlubxgxpirxixtwhxmxbynxoxfmd
xqxjatxsxnojxuxrczxwxvqpyzyafgybyetwydyihmyfymvc
yhyqjsyjyuxiynyczoypygneyrykbuytyopkyvysdayxywrq
zazbghzczfuxzezjinzgznwdzizrktzkzvyjzozdapzqzhof
zszlcvzuzpqlzwztebzyzxsrabachiadagvyafakjoahaoxe
ajaslualawzkapaebqaraipgatamdwavaqrmaxaufcazayts

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: abachi
Cipher: nonpuv

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: abachi
Cipher: 112111313242

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: abachi
method variations:
fgfhnolmlnstqrqsxyvwvxcd

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
a b a c h i 
1 2 1 3 3 4 
1 1 1 1 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
121334111122
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: abachi
Cipher: flsaag

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: abachi
method variations:
fallrb allrbf llrbfa
lrbfal rbfall bfallr

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: abachi

all 720 cipher variations:
abachi abacih abahci abahic abaihc abaich abcahi abcaih abchai abchia abciha
abciah abhcai abhcia abhaci abhaic abhiac abhica abicha abicah abihca abihac
abiahc abiach aabchi aabcih aabhci aabhic aabihc aabich aacbhi aacbih aachbi
aachib aacihb aacibh aahcbi aahcib aahbci aahbic aahibc aahicb aaichb aaicbh
aaihcb aaihbc aaibhc aaibch acabhi acabih acahbi acahib acaihb acaibh acbahi
acbaih acbhai acbhia acbiha acbiah achbai achbia achabi achaib achiab achiba
acibha acibah acihba acihab aciahb aciabh ahacbi ahacib ahabci ahabic ahaibc
ahaicb ahcabi ahcaib ahcbai ahcbia ahciba ahciab ahbcai ahbcia ahbaci ahbaic
ahbiac ahbica ahicba ahicab ahibca ahibac ahiabc ahiacb aiachb aiacbh aiahcb
aiahbc aiabhc aiabch aicahb aicabh aichab aichba aicbha aicbah aihcab aihcba
aihacb aihabc aihbac aihbca aibcha aibcah aibhca aibhac aibahc aibach baachi
baacih baahci baahic baaihc baaich bacahi bacaih bachai bachia baciha baciah
bahcai bahcia bahaci bahaic bahiac bahica baicha baicah baihca baihac baiahc
baiach baachi baacih baahci baahic baaihc baaich bacahi bacaih bachai bachia
baciha baciah bahcai bahcia bahaci bahaic bahiac bahica baicha baicah baihca
baihac baiahc baiach bcaahi bcaaih bcahai bcahia bcaiha bcaiah bcaahi bcaaih
bcahai bcahia bcaiha bcaiah bchaai bchaia bchaai bchaia bchiaa bchiaa bciaha
bciaah bcihaa bcihaa bciaha bciaah bhacai bhacia bhaaci bhaaic bhaiac bhaica
bhcaai bhcaia bhcaai bhcaia bhciaa bhciaa bhacai bhacia bhaaci bhaaic bhaiac
bhaica bhicaa bhicaa bhiaca bhiaac bhiaac bhiaca biacha biacah biahca biahac
biaahc biaach bicaha bicaah bichaa bichaa bicaha bicaah bihcaa bihcaa bihaca
bihaac bihaac bihaca biacha biacah biahca biahac biaahc biaach abachi abacih
abahci abahic abaihc abaich abcahi abcaih abchai abchia abciha abciah abhcai
abhcia abhaci abhaic abhiac abhica abicha abicah abihca abihac abiahc abiach
aabchi aabcih aabhci aabhic aabihc aabich aacbhi aacbih aachbi aachib aacihb
aacibh aahcbi aahcib aahbci aahbic aahibc aahicb aaichb aaicbh aaihcb aaihbc
aaibhc aaibch acabhi acabih acahbi acahib acaihb acaibh acbahi acbaih acbhai
acbhia acbiha acbiah achbai achbia achabi achaib achiab achiba acibha acibah
acihba acihab aciahb aciabh ahacbi ahacib ahabci ahabic ahaibc ahaicb ahcabi
ahcaib ahcbai ahcbia ahciba ahciab ahbcai ahbcia ahbaci ahbaic ahbiac ahbica
ahicba ahicab ahibca ahibac ahiabc ahiacb aiachb aiacbh aiahcb aiahbc aiabhc
aiabch aicahb aicabh aichab aichba aicbha aicbah aihcab aihcba aihacb aihabc
aihbac aihbca aibcha aibcah aibhca aibhac aibahc aibach cbaahi cbaaih cbahai
cbahia cbaiha cbaiah cbaahi cbaaih cbahai cbahia cbaiha cbaiah cbhaai cbhaia
cbhaai cbhaia cbhiaa cbhiaa cbiaha cbiaah cbihaa cbihaa cbiaha cbiaah cabahi
cabaih cabhai cabhia cabiha cabiah caabhi caabih caahbi caahib caaihb caaibh
cahabi cahaib cahbai cahbia cahiba cahiab caiahb caiabh caihab caihba caibha
caibah caabhi caabih caahbi caahib caaihb caaibh cabahi cabaih cabhai cabhia
cabiha cabiah cahbai cahbia cahabi cahaib cahiab cahiba caibha caibah caihba
caihab caiahb caiabh chaabi chaaib chabai chabia chaiba chaiab chaabi chaaib
chabai chabia chaiba chaiab chbaai chbaia chbaai chbaia chbiaa chbiaa chiaba
chiaab chibaa chibaa chiaba chiaab ciaahb ciaabh ciahab ciahba ciabha ciabah
ciaahb ciaabh ciahab ciahba ciabha ciabah cihaab cihaba cihaab cihaba cihbaa
cihbaa cibaha cibaah cibhaa cibhaa cibaha cibaah hbacai hbacia hbaaci hbaaic
hbaiac hbaica hbcaai hbcaia hbcaai hbcaia hbciaa hbciaa hbacai hbacia hbaaci
hbaaic hbaiac hbaica hbicaa hbicaa hbiaca hbiaac hbiaac hbiaca habcai habcia
habaci habaic habiac habica hacbai hacbia hacabi hacaib haciab haciba haacbi
haacib haabci haabic haaibc haaicb haicab haicba haiacb haiabc haibac haibca
hcabai hcabia hcaabi hcaaib hcaiab hcaiba hcbaai hcbaia hcbaai hcbaia hcbiaa
hcbiaa hcabai hcabia hcaabi hcaaib hcaiab hcaiba hcibaa hcibaa hciaba hciaab
hciaab hciaba haacbi haacib haabci haabic haaibc haaicb hacabi hacaib hacbai
hacbia haciba haciab habcai habcia habaci habaic habiac habica haicba haicab
haibca haibac haiabc haiacb hiacab hiacba hiaacb hiaabc hiabac hiabca hicaab
hicaba hicaab hicaba hicbaa hicbaa hiacab hiacba hiaacb hiaabc hiabac hiabca
hibcaa hibcaa hibaca hibaac hibaac hibaca ibacha ibacah ibahca ibahac ibaahc
ibaach ibcaha ibcaah ibchaa ibchaa ibcaha ibcaah ibhcaa ibhcaa ibhaca ibhaac
ibhaac ibhaca ibacha ibacah ibahca ibahac ibaahc ibaach iabcha iabcah iabhca
iabhac iabahc iabach iacbha iacbah iachba iachab iacahb iacabh iahcba iahcab
iahbca iahbac iahabc iahacb iaachb iaacbh iaahcb iaahbc iaabhc iaabch icabha
icabah icahba icahab icaahb icaabh icbaha icbaah icbhaa icbhaa icbaha icbaah
ichbaa ichbaa ichaba ichaab ichaab ichaba icabha icabah icahba icahab icaahb
icaabh ihacba ihacab ihabca ihabac ihaabc ihaacb ihcaba ihcaab ihcbaa ihcbaa
ihcaba ihcaab ihbcaa ihbcaa ihbaca ihbaac ihbaac ihbaca ihacba ihacab ihabca
ihabac ihaabc ihaacb iaachb iaacbh iaahcb iaahbc iaabhc iaabch iacahb iacabh
iachab iachba iacbha iacbah iahcab iahcba iahacb iahabc iahbac iahbca iabcha
iabcah iabhca iabhac iabahc iabach

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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